To survive in a dry area It is necessary to study the environment. Choose equipment, determine survival tactics and conditions. Desert survival It will be a matter of course.
13-1. For dry areas characterized by five main types of terrain –
- Rocky plateau;
- Sand dunes;
- Rugged terrain (“gebel” or “wadi”).
13-2. Desert area obstructs movement and makes it energy consuming. It is extremely difficult to determine the direction of movement. The conditions are to ensure the secrecy of the enemy.
Mountain and desert area
13-3. For mountain-desert terrain separated by flat arid plains. It can be seen from above and above the sea level. After the rain, it falls in the form of flooding. This is where the floods wash out. The water evaporates can be in the area. If there is time to evaporate, small lakes may appear. For example, the Great Salt Lake in Utah or The dead sea. Water in these lakes are high in salt.
13-4. A large number of stones is a stony plateau. Cliffs carved by valleys known as “wadi“In the Middle East and As” in the United States and Mexico. Although it can be used in the United States and Mexico. rains. Golan Heights on the border of Israel and Syria.
13-5. Sandy deserts are covered with sand or gravel. The concept of “plain” is relative, since it has been limited to 300 m and has a distance of 16 to 24 km. The winding of the sand. However, plains can stretch for 3000 m and more. Flora is the most diverse – up to 2 meters high. Examples sand desert There are some areas of the United States of America.
13-6. Salt flats – This is a flat, isolated areas, sometimes devoid of other vegetation. They are common to arid areas where there is a high concentration of salt. It is not suitable for drinking. A salt crust 2.5-30 cm thick is formed on its surface.
13-7. AT dry areas the area of salt marshes. Usually in such places many insects inhabit, most of which are stinging. Avoid salt marshes. Corrodes them. A good example is the Shat al-Arab – a river along the Iran-Iraq border.
13-8. In all arid regions there are areas with rough terrain. It is formed by the erosion of soft sandy soil under the action of precipitation. Dry riverbeds (wadi) can be a width of 3m and a depth of 2m to several hundred. As the size of the channel. Turns form a quaint maze. Wadi It is difficult to overcome.
13-9. Desert survival for it. Determine in the environment on it.
13-10. Seven environmental factors of desert areas –
- Low rainfall.
- Extreme heat and solar radiation.
- Big temperature difference.
- Lean vegetation.
- High content of minerals
13-11. Low precipitation – the most characteristic drylands property. In some deserts, it doesn’t exceed 10 cm. It rains in such places with heavy rain, water is quickly absorbed into the ground. High temperatures in the desert without water, you will survive. Therefore, it is possible to take into account all available sources of liquid.
Intense heat and solar radiation
13-12. Intense sunlight and heat are present in all dry regions. Celsius and above. Heat of the sun and heat of the sand (Figure 13-1).
13-22. The biggest danger is getting lost in sand circulating wall. Wear a pair of glasses. If there is no natural shelter
13-23. Dust and wind-borne sand interfere with radio transmission. Therefore, be prepared to use other means of communication, such as pyrotechnics, signal mirrors or panels.
13-24. Mirage is an optical effect of rising from hot sand or stones. Arises mirage in the deep desert At a distance of about 1.5 km or more from the observer.
13-25. Mirages make it difficult to see distance from a long distance. It is a peace between the two countries.
13-26. It also makes it possible to recognize the object. However, if you’re on the ground level above the ground level, you’ll find it mirage effect. They also impede orientation, distorting natural features. Explore the terrain at dawn, dusk, or under the moon
13-27. Degree The moonlit night is usually crystal clear, the wind subsides, the haze and the brilliance disappear. You can see the red lights, headlights of cars over long distances. The sound spreads very far.
13-28. On the other hand, on a moonless night, visibility is much worse. Movement is extremely dangerous. You can get lost, fall into the gorge or stumble upon the enemy forces. It makes it possible to move on the road through the shelter (rest, watching, memorizing and drawing the road).
13-29. Human need for water in the desert The US Army was preparing for the database in North Africa. It’s possible to make it easier for you to use it. It’s called water discipline, which led to hundreds of cases of heat stroke.
13-30. Key factor desert survival air temperature and water. The body needs a certain temperature. For example, a person who does not work at 43 degrees needs 19 liters of water per day. It makes it possible to reduce the amount of liquidity.
13-31. Normal human body temperature – 36.9 degrees Celsius. The body cools by sweating. Heats up – from work, exercise, or air temperature – you more than you sweat. You sweat Sweating is the main cause of fluid loss. You can get it heatstroke. Asking for immediate medical intervention.
13-32. Figure 13-2 shows the daily rate of water. It is important to understand the need for water. To ensure maximum water supply:
- Find the shadow! Hide from the sun!
- Put something on a hot surface before you lie down / sit down.
- Move less!
- Take care of your sweat. Wear a full outfit including a t-shirt. Do not roll up your head, protect your neck with a scarf or something similar. Wind and direct sunlight. Protect skin and protect it. If you are not moving, do not move, do not move, do not move.
- Do not eat if there is not enough water. Digestion requires food that is needed for cooling.
Survival Guide for the US Army. Chapter 13: Desert Survival