Survival Guide for the US Army. Extreme medicine

Among many other aspects of survival extreme medicine comes first. Emergency landing, extreme climatic conditions, enemy forces, and diseases.

Many soldiers who survived and escaped captivity wound healing and diseases, due to lack of training and lack of medicines. For some, this is the reason for being captured or surrendered.

I have experienced a feeling of apathy and helplessness. Medical skills morale

One person with basics extreme medicine, can play a huge role in the life of many. You should know how to get medical care.

Conditions for maintaining health

4-1. Water and food are required for survival. In addition, it is important to comply with the standards of personal hygiene.

Water

4-2. Due to the natural processes of the body (sweating, urination, defecation), the body loses moisture. The average temperature is 20 degrees Celsius. If there are other factors (heat, cold, activity, altitude, burns or illness). These losses need to be replenished.

4-3. With a lack of fluid occurs dehydration. It decreases the susceptibility to strong shock. Consider the following symptoms:

  • A loss of 5% leads to thirst, irritability, nausea and weakness.
  • Loss of 10% – to dizziness, headache, limited mobility and cramps in the limbs.
  • Loss of 15% – to the skin, painful urination, swollen tongue, deafness and numbness of the skin.
  • A loss of more than 15% leads to death.

4-4. Most frequent signs of dehydration

  1. Urine is a dark color.
  2. A small amount of urine.
  3. Dark circles under the sunken eyes.
  4. Fatigue.
  5. Emotional instability.
  6. If it is squeezed or pinched – ed.).
  7. Delayed capillary blood circulation in the nail wells.
  8. Trench line in the center of the language.
  9. Thirst (2% dehydrated).

4-5. Lost fluid must be replenished. You need to know how much water you need.

4-6. Liter of water at a time. Thus, to avoid dehydration, even a little every hour, even without feeling thirst.

4-7. It is necessary to increase water consumption. Drink as much as 24 liters per 24 hours.

4-8. With insufficient nutrition, drink 6-8 liters of water per day. In extreme, especially arid climatic conditions, an ordinary person loses 2.5-3.5 liters of water / hour. Drink every half hour for 250-350 ml. It is better to regulate the loss of fluid. This will reduce the amount of blood flowing through it.

4-9. When fluid is lost, electrolytes (body salts) are lost. Normal nutritional supplements usually require replenishes, or in emergency situations. Maintain the consumption of carbohydrates and other essential electrolytes.

4-10. It is easiest to prevent water loss. Key recommendations for dehydration prevention:

  1. Drink with meals. Water leads to dehydration.
  2. Acclimatize. Adapted to the environment.
  3. Save sweat, not water. Limit the water in which you drink.
  4. Normalize the water. Until you find out how to regulate perspiration, not water consumption. Limit activity and heat.

4-11. The body can be assessed in several ways. Martial headgear holds about 250 ml of fluid. Wet T-shirt – 500-750 ml.

4-12. You can also estimate the volume of the fluid. The following indicators will serve as a guideline:

  • With a loss of 0.75 beats / min, breathing 12–20 breaths / min.
  • 0.75-1.5 l – pulse 100-120 beats / min, breathing 20-30 breaths / min.
  • 1.5-2l – pulse 120-140 beats / min, breathing 30-40 breaths / min.
  • Vital indicators above the specified rates require special attention.

Nutrition

4-13. It includes a sufficient amount of it. Without nutrition, the body weakens. Food gives energy and replenishes consumed substances. It contains vitamins, minerals, salts and other elements necessary for health. More importantly, morale maintains.

4-14. The three main sources of food are plants, animals (including fish) and dry food. In varying degrees, they all contain the calories, carbohydrates, fats and proteins needed for daily living. To maintain a balanced diet, suhpay must be consumed in addition to harvested plants and animals.

4-15. Calorie is a measure of heat and potential energy. On average, the human body requires 2000 calories per day for minimal functioning. It leads to the recovery of the body.

Plants

4-16. Plant food provides the main source of energy – carbohydrates. Many plants contain enough proteins to maintain their health. Although plants can not provide a balanced diet, but they are useful even in polar areas, where the thermal properties of meat are usually important. Many plant foods, such as nuts and seeds, contain significant amounts of proteins and oils. It will help to make it easier to get rid of it.

4-17. The nutritional value of plants shying away from the enemy or you are in places where wildlife is in short supply. For example –

  • Plants can be dried in the wind, sun, air or fire. It will slow down.
  • Get plants easier and calmer than meat. This is especially important if the enemy is nearby.
Animals

4-18. Meat is more nutritious than vegetable food. In some places and more accessible. However, for its prey,

4-19. For urgent nutritional needs, hunger animals (insects, crustaceans, mollusks, fish and reptiles). Give it a try and get more prey.

Personal hygiene

4-20. In any situation, hygiene is an important aspect for prevent disease and infections. In an emergency, it is even more important. Poor hygiene reduces the chances of survival.

4-21. But you can stay clean. Wash yourself with a cloth and soapy water. It is the main area of ​​interest and attention. With a lack of water, take an air bath. Take it away at least 1 hour. Be careful not to burn.

4-22. If there is no soap, it can be used at animal fats and charcoal. how make soap

  1. Remove fat from the animal.
  2. Add water so that it doesn’t burn.
  3. Cook over low heat, stirring often.
  4. As soon as possible.
  5. Put it up in funnel for transfusion.
  6. Pour water through a funnel into a separate container. The resulting liquid is potash or alkali.

4-23. Alkali can also be prepared by filtering a mixture of ash and water through a cloth.

  • For one portion of alkali, mix 2 servings of fat in a saucepan.
  • Boil on fire until thickened.

Before solidification, you can use it directly from the pan. Or pour into another vessel.

Keep your hands clean

4-24. Bacteria from hands. It also contains a bottle of water and a glass of water. Cut away your fingers away from your mouth.

Keep your hair clean

4-25. Hair can become a haven of bacteria, fleas, lice and other parasites. Comb, cut and wash.

Maintain tidiness of clothes

4-26. Parasite infection, maintain maximum purity of clothing and bedding. Change your underwear and socks daily. Wash outer clothing with every contamination. If there is a shortage of water for 2 hours. If you use a sleeping bag, it can be worn inside out.

Keep your teeth clean

4-27. Rinse your mouth thoroughly and brush your teeth at least once a day. If there is a no toothbrush chewed stick. Find a twig 20 cm long and 1 cm wide. End to separate the fibers. Then brush your teeth thoroughly. It is a good idea to have a debris. Small amount of sand, salt, salt, or soap. Rinse your mouth with water, salt water or infusion of willow bark. In addition, use a floss or something to clean the interdental space.

4-28. If there are holes in the teeth put a temporary seal, placing wax, tobacco, hot pepper, tooth powder / paste, or a portion of ginger root. Before you do this, make sure you’re getting rid of any debris or a toothpick.

Keep your feet clean

4-29. Feet before you wear them on. Every day your feet. Short cut your toenails. Wear insoles and dry socks to size. Daily use of your feet for corns.

4-30. It will protect against infection. Use corns to reduce pressure and friction. If the blister has burst Inspect, clean and bandage daily. Try to avoid tearing large blisters, this will lead to painful ulcers or wounds. The blistering of the blister and the avoidance of the following:

  1. If possible, sterile thread.
  2. Get a blister through.
  3. Cut the needle, leaving a thread in the blister. It prevents the hole from tightening.
  4. Tie this place, put a gauze on napkin, fix with a plaster.
Spend enough time relaxing

4-31. A person needs a certain amount of rest to continue. During daily activities, rest for at least 10 minutes / hour. Learn to feel comfortable in uncomfortable conditions. If you can not relax properly.

Watch for cleanliness in the camp

4-32. Do not go to the toilet near the camp. Use the restrooms. If they are not available, dig holes and bury stool. Drinking water dial only upstream from the parking lot. Purify all the water.

Emergency medical care

4-33. Medical issues, Emergency situations include mind breathing, heavy bleeding and shock. Below is described in detail.

Labored breathing

4-34. Airway and respiratory arrest:

  • It has been shown that there has been a pattern in it.
  • Injuries to the face and neck (affecting the airways – ed.).
  • Allergy reaction and allergic reaction.
  • Kink in the throat (neck is bent so that the chin is on the chest).
  • In an unconscious state of mind, blocking the air into the lungs. It is a fact that it is unconscious.

Heavy bleeding

4-35. Heavy bleeding from any large vessel is very dangerous. Of loss of blood. Loss 2n – deep shock, dangerous to the body. Losing 3l is usually fatal.

Shock

4-36. Shock itself (acute stress response) is not a disease. It has been shown that there has been no blood pressure drops (or cardiac output) for the patient.

Rescue steps

4-37. Control your victim and your own. Calm him. Examine for injuries. Find the cause of the injury and follow the basics of the PMP. Start with the airways, but be careful. In some cases, a person may die from arterial bleeding more quickly than from respiratory arrest. Methods for treating respiratory tract, stopping bleeding and shock.

Opening and maintaining airway function

4-38. You can open the air and support their work as follows:

Step 1. Examine and determine whether it has airway obstruction and its degree (full or partial). Clear his airway. Be ready to calm the victim, clear his airway and perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation Use the method of Heimlich.

Step 2. Using your fingers (including broken teeth, fillings, sand). It is desirable to wrap a hand with a rag or a handkerchief, but not tightly.

Step 3. Grasping the jaws of the jaws. For stability, lean elbows. If his lips are closed, gently lowering with your finger (Figure 4-1).

4-58. It is a very strong muscles to stretch the hip. You can make an extravised exhaust tire (Figure 4-6).

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