Survival in man-made environment. Safety at work

The second chapter from the book of Alexander Buriak “The Art of Survival”. We offer to familiarize with other chapters of this section:

  • electrical safety
  • Security when working with a personal computer

Hazardous factors at work

The areas of activity most dangerous for electrical injuries are agriculture and construction. Suspended wires were kept or not suspended. Electricians, radiomonters, electric welders, construction workers. Before the start of the shift. The case is inattention, due to fatigue. Many cases of electric shock occur on production installations, it becomes a conductor). It is approximately 30% of 65 volts. More than half of the leasing in electrical installations occur when replacing lamps. When performing thoughtlessly perform familiar actions.

They are divided into the following groups:

  1. Premises without increased danger: dry, dust-free, with an insulating floor (for example, wooden).
  2. High-risk rooms – in which there are conditions:
    • 75%;
    • The air temperature for a long time exceeds 30 degrees;
    • There is conductive dust (coal, metal);
    • There is a conductive floor (metal, earthen, brick, reinforced concrete);
    • It is possible to touch it
    • Especially dangerous rooms – in which there are conditions:
      • Air humidity is close to 100%;
      • There is a chemically active environment;
      • At the same time there are two factors.

      In wet rooms (showers, etc.), it can be broken down. Defeat may occur from the water supply or water heating.

      Electrical safety measures at work

      When working with equipment that is energized, you should, if possible, keep one hand in your pocket. This is a lesion. In case of repairing the equipment, it would be safe to clean it. This can be enabled without warning. It is allowed to go through the gloves and galoshes. Do you really need to do it? It is not allowed, especially in a thunderstorm.

      Protection against electrical and electromagnetic fields

      Electric and electromagnetic fields adversely affect the body. The main sources of the electromagnetic field: radio stations, radars, high-voltage power lines. It is the electrical currents circuited in the human body. It is a process that occurs when it comes to the ground. The following standards are for people working under electric field conditions:

      Field strength, kV / m five 15 25
      Allowable exposure time during the day 8 h 1.5 h 5 minutes

      It should be noted that the field strength has been measured.

      Means of protection against electrical and electromagnetic fields:

      • Permanent grounded shields;
      • Portable grounded shields;
      • Shielding clothing.

      Protective screens are made of metal mesh or solid metal sheet. Shielding clothing is sewn from a fabric with a conductive coating. It should not be grounded. It is recommended that it be used to make it.

      Safety at work

      On any more or less large the enterprise There is a labor protection service that is required. In fact, it can be carelessly. Therefore, it is not a problem. where you work.

      Possible harmful factors in the enterprise:

      • toxic substances in the air (gases, vapors, aerosols, dust);
      • fluctuations (noise, vibration, infrasound, ultrasound);
      • invisible radiation (radioactive, x-ray, ultraviolet, heat);
      • blinding light;
      • fields (electric, magnetic, electromagnetic).

      Possible hazards in the enterprise:

      1. Constructive:

      • moving vehicles;
      • moving parts of mechanisms;
      • can be fall or collapse;
      • slippery, fragile, inclined;
      • unreliable equipment;
      • lack of protective devices: means of restriction access, etc .;
      • There is no matter of potential sources of ignition.

      2. Technological:

      • high voltage;
      • large masses of substances are heated to very low;
      • high or low pressure;
      • combustible, explosive, chemically active, toxic substances.

      3. Organizational:

      • low qualification of workers;
      • depreciation of equipment;
      • violation of equipment operation rules;
      • improper or insufficient maintenance of equipment;
      • rush;
      • poor lighting;
      • of absence of use of funds;
      • inconsistency, poor governance;
      • neglect of workers to danger;
      • inability to receive timely assistance;
      • lack of first aid facilities for victims;
      • difficulty of evacuation.

      Noise

      Hertz to 20,000 Hertz. Oscillations with a frequency below 16 Hz are called infrasound, above 20,000 Hz – ultrasound. It is an increase in sound intensity by 2 times. Therefore, it is possible to measure the sound level by 10 times. One decibel (dB) – 0.1 Bela. The upper limit of audible sounds is 140 dB. With a stronger sound, the eardrum may break. Prolonged exposure to noise intensity above 80 dB leads to hearing loss. The sound vibrations are perceived by the eardrum, but it is not perceived as the 30thB. The noise spreads to the body. It occurs mainly through the nervous system. There are headaches, irritability, fatigue. The most harmful impulse noise (knock, etc.). Depends on the frequency of the sound. The table presents data for the frequency of 500 Hertz.

      Noise remedy Efficiency
      Glass window 25 dB
      Two glass windows (with an air gap of 10 cm) 40 dB
      Door (with soft lining around the perimeter) 25 dB
      Antinoise helmet 25 dB
      Antinoise headphones 20 dB
      Antinoise inserts in the ears 15 dB

      Vibration

      Vibration is characterized by amplitude (or speed, or acceleration) and frequency. Supporting the person through the hands (from the instrument). Apply it to the body. Vibration is especially dangerous at the body of the body. The frequencies are shown in the table:

      Body part frequency Hz
      A heart 5..6
      Brain, liver, stomach 4..9
      Hands 30..40
      Eyeball 60..90
      Skull 250..300

      Hertz causes “seasickness”.

      Personal protective equipment against vibrations:

      • Soft seat;
      • Shoes with thick, soft soles;
      • Gloves or mittens (from thick material) for work with the tool.

      It is necessary to ensure that it can be shown.

      Infrasound

      It is possible to follow the motion of the mass masses. Its source is compressors, air conditioners, fans, vehicles, etc. Infrasound adversely affects the body. Particularly dangerous frequencies close to the body. Severe infrasound can cause rupture of blood vessels and subsequent death.

      Ultrasound

      Ultrasound is used for degreasing, cleaning, welding, soldering, flaw detection, etc. It affects the body through the air and through contact with radiating surfaces. Sleep disturbances, headache, fatigue, etc. appear. Personal protective equipment when working with ultrasound – thick gloves.

      High pressure

      It is dangerous to stay where it’s maintained (for example, gas cylinders, steam pipes, boilers). Cylinders explode when heated, with a strong blow. It is smeared with a combustible lubricant – for example, petroleum jelly. It leads to a rapid oxidation of the combustible substance.

      Alexander Buryak, editors – LastDay.Club
      from the book “The Art of Survival”

      The art of survival. Chapter 4.2: Industrial Safety

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