Taiga is a place with beautiful landscapes, rich forests and many dangers. For the untrained traveler, a trip to the taiga can end tragically. Survival in the taiga in the winter includes many rules that everyone who has decided to conquer the northern expanses should know.
- General characteristics of winter taiga
- 2Features and rules for survival in the taiga
- 2.1Select clothes and shoes
- 2.2Necessary equipment for survival in the taiga in winter
- 2.3 Food and water
- 2.4 We make fire
- 3Organizing the night
- 4 Basic rules of movement and orientation in the taiga in winter
General characteristics of winter taiga
Stories about the winter taiga from experienced travelers or hunters can be listened to for hours, but it is better to see once. This is a huge space with impassable forests stretching for hundreds of kilometers. The natural zone of taiga occupies 18% of the total land area of the Earth. The climate is cold and wet. In winter, in the taiga, the temperature column ranges from -50 ° to -1 ° C. Consider this when you go to conquer the taiga region.
Coniferous trees predominate in the taiga: pines, spruces, cedars, larches, poplar and birch are less common. From their trunks it turns out excellent wintering for a hunter or a lost tourist. Due to the fact that the soil is acidic and contains few nutrients, the plant world is extremely poor here, which greatly complicates the survival in winter. The lower tiers of the forest are covered with moss, small shrubs, lichens and mushroom glades. This is one of the few representatives of the northern flora, adapted to the harsh climate.
With the animal world is much easier. The taiga is inhabited by animals that have adapted to the cold of this natural area. In winter you can meet a hare, a lynx, a wolf, a boar, an elk, a deer and other representatives of the animal world. The largest beast of the taiga is the Siberian tiger, meeting with which is extremely undesirable.
Features and rules of survival in the taiga
Surviving the taiga is not an empty sound. A man who has fallen into the server forests is threatened with many dangers, and overcoming them will be just survival.
The main enemy of the taiga is cold. In winter, especially at night, it is extremely dangerous. The human body, trying to keep warm, spends a lot of strength and energy, and frostbite and hypothermia reduce the chances of survival.
Remember that in the north there is a limited choice of natural resources, food and water. Preparing for the trip, calculate how much you will need stocks for the entire duration of the trip. In addition, do not forget about equipment, first aid kit, objects of survival, even if you are going to just walk in the taiga. No one knows what surprises will bring you one day in the northern forest.
Fees in the taiga begin with a backpack, which consists of everything necessary for survival, starting with matches and ending with a tent. That is why the hiking bag must be appropriately sized and contain the entire hiking kit. Let us examine by points the basic rules of survival in the taiga and what is needed to comply with them.
We select clothes and shoes
Selecting things for a hike in the winter taiga, apply the rule of “three layers”: base, insulation and top. High-quality clothing will reduce heat transfer and protect you from the cold. Since the campaign will be in the winter season, choose the appropriate color of clothing. And the last rule, clothes should be light, otherwise sneaking through the thick snow, you quickly get tired.
Special attention is paid to underwear. This should be a thermal underwear made from natural fabrics, with a pile. Knitted and simple cotton socks and footcloths are taken with a margin, 8-10 pairs in case your feet get wet and you will need to change clothes.
Warm pants or leggings hooked to a jumpsuit or syntepon pants. Top for thermal underwear is a turtleneck with a long neck and a warm sweater or fleece jacket. These things are also better to take with a stock.
The top layer should be made of synthetic fabrics, not blown and not soaked. A long jacket or fur coat will be just right, and a sheepskin coat, especially if it nourishes moisture from above, will become very heavy and make further movement difficult.
We wear a warm knitted or a hat with earflaps on our heads, we take a balaclava with us. We warm our hands with mittens on fur, take 3-4 pairs of spare with us, a scarf at the throat.
Shine pay special attention. Feet should always be dry and warm, otherwise you will freeze very quickly, and no physical work will correct the situation. Pick up shoes one size larger so that you can pick up warm wool socks. In addition to special boots with high berets, you can put on felt boots, as long as they are waterproof, comfortable and lightweight.
Necessary equipment for survival in the taiga in winter
Equipment should be not only for household work, cooking, but also for self-defense. In a backpack, be sure to fold a sleeping bag, a travel mat, a piece of polyethylene about 2×2 m, if possible a single tent. In the folded state, it takes up little space, and it will bring a lot of benefits. For a landmark, you need a compass. Put a flashlight and a set of spare batteries in your pocket. A small gas burner is useful if you can not make a fire, for example, in heavy rain or wind.
Now we collect tools for survival:
- a small hatchet and knives, one for the section of animal carcass, the other for domestic purposes;
- pencils and markers;
- map of the area where you are going;
- fuel canister;
- several matchboxes and a lighter box. Put it all in a waterproof bag or airtight container so as not to get wet;
- any tools that may be useful for the construction of a temporary building (pliers, handsaw, small saw, plane, nails, etc.).
First aid kit with a minimum supply of medicines should be required. Put iodine, brilliant green, peroxide, bandage, patches, painkillers and hemostatic agents into it. Do not interfere with any sorbents, if you eat something wrong.
For a guide to the terrain and communication with the outside world, a GPS navigator, a smartphone with a spare battery, a radio receiver and a walkie-talkie are useful.
Household items include a metal plate, mug, fork and spoon (you can just spoon). Do not forget about a small pot in which you can cook a jug or brew tea.
In taiga forests and rivers there are a lot of fish and wild animals. Hunting and fishing on them will help not die of hunger if your food reserves run out. Take with you a rifle with spare cartridges and a fishing rod with the necessary gear to catch. Weapons are also useful for self-defense, if any large beast does not want to become your prey.
Experienced taiga travelers know that going north is best with a trained dog. She certainly does not belong to your equipment, but it will not be superfluous to take along a true friend. The dogs will help in difficult situations, they will alert you about the danger and will simply brighten up your leisure time if you have to survive in the taiga yourself.
Food and water
Without food, a person can live a week or two, but without water it will not last even three days. Regardless of whether you are going to one day or a month, a stock of food is required. The backpack should have canned food, crackers, salt, crackers, a pack of pressed tea, 1-2 bars of black chocolate, meat, preferably in a dried form, at least one type of cereal. If it happened that you expected to stay in the forest for a couple of days and get lost, you will have to stretch the two-day reserves until you are found or you choose yourself.
In winter, there are practically no vegetation in the taiga forests, so it is impossible to eat mushrooms and berries. The only exception is the fruits frozen on the branches that did not reach the birds and local mushroom pickers. Small animals also can not be found with the exception of squirrels. We’ll have to hunt the animals for bigger or fish. That’s just for this and the handy gun and fishing rod. The fish caught in the water will make a tasty soup, shish kebab or a carcass baked on the fire.
Pine nuts from cones and forest hazelnuts will be good food. To seek fruit on earth is an ungrateful occupation, since all the entrails of them went to rodents. You have to climb a tree or churn the fruit with a stick. Have good taste acorns. They are baked on a fire, previously soaked for several hours in water. Look around if there are raspberry or currant bushes nearby, break off a few shoots from the branches. Of these, you can brew flavored tea and warm up on a halt.
Make a fire
In the winter taiga fire first mate. Near it you can warm up, cook food, dry clothes, and even fire drives away wild animals. For a campfire you will need matches, dry brushwood or bark, dry firewood. If there is fuel – well, with it, it will be easier to light a fire. If you have to spend the night in the forest, you will need enough wood to make it to the morning.
It is necessary to make a fire on the spruce branches that have been folded in advance; the fire will melt the snow beneath you and your heat source will fall through. Branches for firewood need to break off from dry, lying trees, wet will not work. In addition to small sprigs, moss is suitable for ignition, but only completely dry.
In the absence of matches, in the daytime you can use a magnifying glass or a lens for glasses, the main thing is to have a sunny day. After dusk it is necessary to recall a school course from physics about the force of friction and to extract a spark.
Do not forget to cook wood for the night. There should be a lot of them, let them stay better than not be enough. Knock not very large branches of the same size and fold them aside. Do not make too big a fire, it will take a lot of wood and will take a lot of strength.
In winter, daylight hours are short and it’s not advisable to have long gatherings around the campfire. It will be enough to dissolve a small hearth for heating and brewing tea with a simple snack.
Water is an important source of life for man. The supply of fresh water even in a day trip should always be. But what if it ended. Winter in the forest will be an assistant. Snow, which is enough at this time of the year, is very useful for you. It can be melted in a mug or pot, a little salt and drink. If you have problems with fire, you can melt the snow under warm clothing. Put the container with the accumulated snow under the jacket, sleeping bag and wait until the water from the solid state is converted into liquid. In summer or spring to look for a source of water is easier. Closer to the water, the vegetation is thicker and juicier, but in winter it is not so simple. If you are lucky enough to find a pond, you cannot drink raw water, you need to boil it.
We organize overnight stay
The construction of an overnight stay in the winter in the taiga depends on the time of stay in the northern latitudes. For one or two days, the tent is also suitable, but for a longer trip you will need more reliable shelter. Well, if you find wintering hunters or a forester. If there is no hut nearby, and the tent is also not taken, it will have to be engaged in construction.
Shelters in the forest can be built several types:
- snow cave;
- natural shelters.
For the hut, make a frame of long branches, on top of them sprinkle fir tree branches, and for better thermal insulation, drag from above with snow. Inside it is also possible to cover with the same spruce and moss.
Having lost and become hostage to the taiga, look for fallen trees at night for the night. On the leeward side, clear a small patch of snow. Pile branches with conifers to arrange loungers. Nearby do the same for a campfire, a smaller one.
Basic rules of movement and orientation in the taiga in winter
Winter taiga is fraught with many dangers. Under the thickness of the snow, you can not see the precipice, swamp, trap. Moving through the snowdrifts, which can be above the knees, takes a lot of time and effort. The solution to the problem will come with the construction of self-made ski snowshoes. They will reduce the pressure of the feet on the snow, thereby eliminating falling through.
Snowshoes are built from tree branches. Two strong and flexible branches are connected into rings. The inner frame is made, similar to the grid. Branches are attached to it, covering all places of gaps. Next, leg braces are made and snowshoes are ready.
Moving through the taiga, avoids the icy areas. Have failed under the ice, the chances of survival are minimized.
Orientation in the taiga region is the responsibility of everyone who gets there. This will not only help in the extraction of provisions, but also lead you astray to civilization. In addition to the navigator, compass and maps are guided by natural phenomena. With the help of the sun of the stars and will accept the surrounding you can find the side of the world, the source of water. Study carefully the places under your feet. The presence of human traces or technology is a great success, it means the settlement is somewhere nearby. In winter, when it snows, the task becomes more complicated. Then you have to look for a reservoir and move with the flow. People tend to lodge along springs.
Surviving in the taiga in the winter, especially alone, is very difficult. Once in a position in which either you are north or he is you, you should not panic and think pessimistically. Self-discipline and necessary knowledge are the main companions of the traveler.