In the abdominal cavity are organs such as the bladder, intestines and uterus (in women). They have a large quantity of blood vessels, where damage may be no less dangerous than the wound, directly to our bodies themselves.
If the wound goes along, so she was not disclosed, the abdominal muscles must be tensed. To achieve this, the victim should be put on the back, gently lifting outstretched legs placed beneath them rolled blanket, coat or jacket. If the wound is wide, it may be disclosed when the tension of the abdominal muscles. To relax the latter, you should put something Read more [...]
Ulcer perforation is the most common reason for emergency surgery for peptic ulcer. Its symptoms are very typical in the early stages after the ensuing perforation (first 6, sometimes 12 hours.). The patient complains of a very strong ("dagger") pain arising suddenly, as from a blow in the epigastric region, and immediately spread to the entire upper half of the abdomen. Pain immediately reach their full intensity and stable peace, but worse when moving, that binds the patient, causing it to avoid changes in body position. Stomach doskoobrazno flattened, sometimes even drawn, is not Read more [...]
Cholecystectomy - Is the removal operation Gallbladder, used in acute and chronic cholecystitis. Abdominal cavity usually reveal an oblique incision in the right upper quadrant parallel costal arch (see laparotomy). By autopsy abdominal cavity and release of adhesions of the gallbladder in acute cholecystitis produce puncture Gallbladder and drained its contents (for this purpose should be prepared exhaustion coupled with a thick needle or a thin trocar) is isolated and ligated cystic artery and the cystic duct, which intersect in the 1-0.5 cm from the confluence of it into the general bilious Read more [...]
In children, there is a close relation of the disease cholecystitis with chronic tonsillitis, adenoids, an inflammation of the sinuses, dental caries, infective hepatitis and others a role in cholecystitis plays malnutrition of children (random and force-feeding, occasional meals, feeding without age of children), which leads to violations of secretion and bile flow. Direct activators of cholecystitis are microbes: cocci, Proteus, E. coli, certain conditions for the development of cholecystitis are Giardiasis biliary tract, rarely with helminthic infestations.
The most common complaints of children Read more [...]
Surgery - this is the area of clinical medicine dealing with the disease, the primary method of treatment which is operation.
Surgery - one of the oldest medical specialties. As a clinical discipline surgery complicated and continuously improved.
At various times of her "spun off" and become independent ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, oncology, traumatology, etc.
To study the surgical patient, in addition to traditional clinical, laboratory and radiological methods in recent years, a number of commonly used special tools, radiographic and functional Read more [...]
Surgical operations on the abdominal cavity: a mirror to the abdominal wall (Fig. 82), liver (Fig. 83), intestinal clamps, elastic - curved, straight lines (Fig. 84) and hard (Fig. 85), elastic clips stomach - straight and curved, intestinal crushing pulp (Fig. 86), intestinal fenestrated forceps, clamps for the gall bladder (Fig. 87), a spoon to remove gallstones (Fig. 88), trocars (Fig. 89). In operations on the rectum rectal use mirrors (Fig. 90), hemorrhoidal fenestrated forceps - straight lines (Fig. 91).
Other instruments: syringes (see), the needle for the collection and transfusion of Read more [...]
The operation is performed in two stages. Initially impose gastric fistula with an insulated portion of the ileum, taken on pedicle. The distal end of the segment intestine sewn into stomach by type of end-to-side, and the outdoors through the proximal opening in the abdominal wall, where a fistula. Anastaltic position intestinal loop prevents leakage from the gastric fistula.
In the second stage, cut out isolated ventricle according to Pavlov or Savich - Brestkin, as shown in Fig. 36. In such a ventricle during digestion accumulate 25-30 ml of gastric juice. It can be collected at regular Read more [...]
Fistula to the stomach impose in order to obtain the contents of the stomach or the introduction of various substances directly into the stomach, without the help of a gastric tube. For the first time this for physiological experiments suggested VA Basov in 1842
For the collection of gastric juice in stomach sewed wide metal cannula (diameter of 2 - 3 cm), bringing it to the middle line of the abdomen (eg, dogs for experiments with sham feeding). For the introduction of various substances directly into the stomach or to register, you can use it cuts narrow cannula (10-12 mm), derived in the side Read more [...]
Operation is used to study the functions of the pyloric stomach. The continuity of the gastrointestinal channel for this operation is provided by cash advance gastrojejunostomy.
Gastrojejunostomy produce for 3-4 weeks, during this time the animal has time to fully recover and it can operate again.
Surgical technique. Musculocutaneous 8-10 cm long incision is carried through the old scar midline abdominal or right nipple line. In wound recovered pyloric part of the stomach and duodenum. Last immediately distal to the pyloric sphincter of the mesentery and otpreparovyvayut cross between two crushes Read more [...]
Savich Brestkin-way, proposed in 1925, is the severing sector fundal part of the stomach near the cardia and then stitching the walls.
Cardiac part fundus richly supplied by nerve fibers. Ventricles, cut to describe a method of the lower sections of the stomach, do not have the reflex phase secretion and do not differ from Heidenhein. However, even with a high cut-off flap is not always possible to completely preserve the nerve fibers of small ventricle, and in some cases the reflex phase of secretion is impaired.
Surgical technique. After removing the stomach chosen cardiac side area with the Read more [...]
Frenikus-symptom - Is tenderness on pressure between the legs of sternocleidomastoid muscle in the supraclavicular area, in the projection of phrenic nerve in the neck. Is due to irritation of the nerve branches in some acute diseases and injuries of abdominal, and thoracic cavities.
The most frequently frenikus-symptom right revealed acute cholecystitis (synonym symptom Musso). However, it can be positive for ruptured duodenal ulcer, subdiaphragmatic abscess and other diseases. Frenikus-symptom on the left can be positive for gastric ulcer perforation, rupture of the spleen, ectopic pregnancy Read more [...]
Phlegmon of the stomach - Sharp evolved purulent inflammation of the stomach wall as a result of infection in its thickness defect in the mucosa, ulcers, burns, or by hematogenous infectious diseases. Characterized by acute onset, fantastic chills, high fever, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, and general poor condition. On palpation - a sharp pain in the upper abdomen. With the development of the disease, there are signs of peritonitis, progressively deteriorate. Only operative treatment - Emergency gastrectomy, antibiotics through a thin drainage into the abdominal cavity and intramuscularly.
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Fastsiolopsidoz (Fasciolopsidosis) - worm infestations caused by trematodes (trematode) - Fasciolopsis buski.
Parasite leaf-shaped, 15-50 mm long. Adult worms are parasitic in the small intestine of human, pig, dog. From feces of patients allocated fastsiolopsidozom parasite eggs. After contact with the eggs in the water after 2-3 weeks they formed buds that go outside and get into snails. In the cochlea, the larvae of the worm propagation occurs, ending with the release of larvae into the water - cercariae. Cercariae encyst on water and plants. Infection occurs when fastsiolopsidozom larvae Read more [...]
Schistocystis a cleft the front wall and the abdominal integument. Typically, when this anomaly there is a significant discrepancy between pubic bones, no navel, cryptorchidism, and aplasia of the prostate (Fig. 62).
Clinical picture: The bladder wall, covered with dark red velvety mucosa protrudes through a defect in the abdominal muscles. From the mouths of ureteral urine is released at intervals. The continuing incontinence. Skin thighs and vulva exposed maceration and chronic inflammation.
Diagnosis is simple, the disease is detected on examination the patient.
Proposed for the treatment Read more [...]
Depending on where the fertilized egg implants pipe pregnancy divided into interstitial or mediate (graviditas tubaria interstitialis), peresheechnuyu (graviditas tubaria isthmica) and ampullar (graviditas tubaria ampullaris). Pregnancy usually occurs in a fallopian tube is rare - at the same time in both, can be re-tubal ectopic pregnancy.
Due to the poor conditions for the development of a fertilized egg Fallopian gestation rarely wears until the second half of the term, it is often interrupted for 4 to 6 weeks. Usually the outcome is the rupture of tubal pregnancy plodovmestilischa. Rarely Read more [...]
Tularemia - Nidal acute infectious disease, occurring with fever, septicemia and characteristic lymph nodes.
Etiology. Pathogen (Bact. tularense) - aerobic, of 0.2 - 0.7 microns, is in the form of small cocci, still, do not form spores, Gram distinguishes endotoxin. Bacteria can long persist in the environment, such as in water at t ° 1 ° - to 9 months. without reducing virulence, with increasing f up to 20 - 25 ° bacteria die off in the water for 1-2 months, not sensitive to low temperatures, survive at t ° -30 °. Heating to 60 ° t ° kills bacteria in 20 minutes., Boiling - immediately. Read more [...]
Tuberculous peritonitis occurs in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, intestines, or other organs. Different forms: erythema, dry (adhesive) and ulcerative cheesy. Peritonitis runs a chronic, dominated by the phenomenon of general intoxication - fatigue, weight loss, low-grade fever. Small vague abdominal pain in his study revealed ascites or multiple small tumor formation. Sometimes - the phenomenon of partial obstruction of the intestines. Treatment: high doses of streptomycin ftivazidu, Pasco intramuscular injection in the abdominal cavity. When the exudative form is successfully used Read more [...]
Upper outer boundary of the abdomen are the front edge of the costal arches and xiphoid. Behind the upper limit corresponds to the lower edges of the abdomen XII ribs and spinous process XII thoracic vertebra. The lower abdomen are the outer boundaries of the iliac crest, inguinal ligament and Pubic symphysis. Said bone formation is easily palpable throughout.
In the study of the stomach wall secrete stomach, abdomen, and the contents of the cavity.
Abdominal wall are divided into two divisions: the anterolateral and posterior, or lumbar region. The boundary between these divisions is a line Read more [...]
Pendulous abdomen with visceroptosia: 1 - constitutional, 2 - Acquisition.
Visceroptosia (synonym visceroptosis) - the omission of the abdominal cavity.
General visceroptosia is constitutional and acquired (Figure). Constitutional visceroptosia can be observed in individuals adynamic constitution due to congenital weakness of the ligaments and mesentery fixing bodies to the back wall abdominal cavity is lowered, and stomach is dropped. Acquired visceroptosia happens in multiparous women due to stretching and weakening of the abdominal wall muscles and the pelvis and the sudden weight loss. Read more [...]
Adhesions (Synonym: adhesions, Mooring) - fibrous bands, by which bodies, covered with serous membrane (in abdominal, pleural cavity, heart bag), spliced together and with the wall of the cavity. Adhesions can also be formed in the joint cavities. They are rarely congenital, often are the result of the inflammatory process. Composed of fibrous adhesions, fibrous tissue containing blood vessels and nerves. Sometimes after surgery or inflammation in abdominal cavity, a large number of adhesions, in such cases we speak of adhesive disease.
Adhesions restrict the mobility of normal organs (intestines, Read more [...]