It is a disease that develops gradually. People drink for different reasons. For example:
• drinking friends;
• misfortune, which they took tragically;
• psychological problems (for example, an inferiority complex);
• just a weakness of character and as a result — the inability to cope with everyday production problems, etc.
Stage of alcoholism
1. Dolcepolina: people at this stage begins to drink more often, but the craving for alcohol, he is not yet entrenched.
2. Threshold: threatening stage, when people are already addicted to alcohol, Read more [...]
"Not AIDS, not TB will ruin Russia, and "beer alcoholism" in the midst of the young generation.."The chief sanitary doctor of Russia Gennady Onishchenko.7 facts about beerFact 1. Beer is more harmful than moonshine and vodka, because in the process of fermentation saved toxic compounds (aldehydes, methanol, ethers...), which is 10-100 times higher than in the vodka, purchased from a higher alcohol cleaning.Fact 2. Beer alcoholism is a severe psychological illness. It is very typical, so-called, anosognosia, in other words a complete denial of the disease. For consumption of Read more [...]
Saint Martin's evil - Addicted to alcohol, a type of drug (see). Arises from the abuse of alcohol and is characterized by change the body's reaction to the introduction of alcohol, resulting in the loss of self-control (difficult to overcome the desire to receive significant amounts of alcohol in addition to the initial dose) in the development of alcohol withdrawal (withdrawal) syndrome by minovanii intoxication, changing tolerance alcohol, which initially increases and subsequently decreases markedly. Consequence of chronic alcoholism are personality changes and, as a rule, social decline, Read more [...]
Saint Martin's evil develops gradually, imperceptibly, and the drinker and for a long time regarded them only as a habit, not a disease. One of the early symptoms of alcoholism is the disappearance of vomiting in patients with severe intoxication, which allows use of more and more liquor. At the same time there is the so-called loss of self-control - when used at the beginning of a small amount of alcohol (100-200 g) there is a formidable desire to drink more and more. With the development of alcoholism (alcoholism) drink more and more often, with random individuals or alone, the character Read more [...]
A special place among alcoholic psychosis is pathological alcohol intoxication. It refers to the so-called exceptional conditions that are characterized by urgency, brevity and depth of mental disorder (confusion, delusions and hallucinatory phenomena, motor stimulation). Pathological alcohol intoxication occurs after the use of alcohol, very rarely, predominantly in individuals with alcohol intoxication aggravated by additional factors (fatigue, physical, infectious diseases, atherosclerosis, etc.), it may be against the usual intoxication, often after drinking even small amounts of alcohol. Read more [...]
In April 1974, at the American Society for Experimental Biology Jack Wang and Richard Pierson made a report on the impact of alcohol on the content of zinc in the body. Two researchers from Columbia University, was given small doses of alcohol to young rats, and thus noticed that the level of zinc in the body gradually decreased, especially in the muscles and blood plasma, and very quickly - in the liver. Rats also grew more slowly than the control group, which did not give alcohol. Also acts alcohol on children and youth. Zinc deficiency caused by alcoholism, has fatal consequences for young Read more [...]
Thus, among the reasons for the spread of domestic drinking in our country, we indicated microsocial factors (in the form of entrenched and emerging drinking traditions) and individual characteristics of the person. To avoid the first use of alcohol out of curiosity and imitation parents, teachers and educators should seriously warn the younger generation about the specific and insidious effects of alcohol on the nervous system, which is reflected in the gradual development uncontrollable craving and addiction. This - the third, no less important, the reason for the widespread alcoholism in many Read more [...]
The identification and treatment of alcoholism, until recently, were engaged only in specialized medical institutions. Currently, the task of shifting the center of gravity of the anti-alcohol directly to industrial implementation of its forces doctors and nurses health units, health centers, clinics and health centers departmental primary care network serving the industry. If necessary, to address the health authorities of the city or area in the health units or health centers that serve enterprises, construction and transportation organizations, organized drug treatment rooms. The objectives Read more [...]
All of the reactions can express both normal and pathological mental response. Pathological reactions differ from the normal number of features [on Licko AE, 1983]: they are strengthened and are not adequate to quantify the significance of the situation that caused them, tend to generalize, to spread beyond that situation and micro groups, where they originated, have a tendency to become a stereotype respond in different situations, lead to social exclusion.
On the basis of the described reactions occur pathology behavior. As a special version of it is isolated delinquent behavior - Chain of Read more [...]
Myocardial in poisonings (Cor toxicum Zelenin on VF). This type of myocardial dystrophy occurs in domestic and industrial conditions, and occasionally incorrect use of drugs. Commonly known myocardial poisoning by substances such as chloroform, phosphorus, arsenic, and other tallium
Myocardial poisoning Carbon Monoxide (CO) has similarities with cardiac anemia, since in this case a reduction in capacity of blood oxygen transport and deteriorating.
In chronic alcoholism can be found a variety of degenerative changes in the myocardium and hearths sclerosis. But part of it is also influenced by Read more [...]
Treatment of chronic alcoholism. Changed reaction on alcohol a person suffering from alcoholism, does not disappear even after years of abstinence, and any re-use of alcohol leads to relapse. Therefore, the main objective of treatment is to create A patient of psychological and physical conditions for total abstinence from alcohol for a number of years. Treatment an outpatient basis, in mental hospital, office. The patient should see a doctor regularly for at least three years. In the first stage, or in the event of complications may need to be persisting in a mental (substance abuse) hospitals Read more [...]
In alcoholism are serious violations in self-esteem, which is one of the most important components of value orientation. Self-assessment of alcoholics suffer loss of ductility, flexibility, adaptability, it is often inadequately overestimated (or underestimated), with high self-regulatory criteria bluntly ignored and instead of their self-assessment criteria are the ones that dominate the above-mentioned anti-social-oriented alcohol groups. Often inadequately increased level of claims, developing manipulative behavior, there is a decrease in the ability to rebuild their relationship in connection Read more [...]
A special place among the psychological models of alcoholism is now a concept grounded in the transactional analysis (Berne, 1964; Steiner, 1971; Carrol, 1980).
Under the transaction in psychology means an act, which turns into a response action or state of others and may be calculated in such a transformed return. Transaction system is built from conscious or unconscious motive to cause some changes in the actions of the state or other person required to meet the needs of the subject transaction (Stolin, 1982). By transactional analysis E. Berne described interrelated transaction system, which Read more [...]
Progression of disease in these groups was medium to high, and the social consequences of alcoholism match the severity of clinical manifestations. The fourth group also included Sinton person with signs of balance and stenichnosti prone to bind to somatic complaints. In this group alcoholism proceeded most favorably: the timing of its formation have been stretched, and social effects on the expression behind the severity of clinical manifestations. Most malignant alcoholism proceeded with for the fifth group, premorbid features of which were regarded as psychopathic. Social consequences of Read more [...]
It is characteristic that, in contrast to other studies, the studies carried out with the use of TAT, different authors obtained similar results as a whole, describing patients with alcoholism as a very homogeneous group. This is due, apparently, that deep level of mental activity, which is addressed to the TAT, were the least susceptible to the fluctuations of individual and situational changes, and characteristics such as low self-esteem, the latent hostility and guilt manifested in the power of "super-ego "to describe the most versatile alcoholics and perhaps most closely associated Read more [...]
In the drawings, made sick alcoholic men dominated plots, baring outside of alcohol and its consequences: the scene was dominated by drinking alcohol, pictures of bottles, glasses, drunk people, in more rare cases - symbolic drawings that show severe consequences of drinking, loneliness, sick, shut off from important people, etc. Most diseases are they reflected in the extremely rare cases, as a rule, only those who have undergone psychotherapy.
Women suffering from alcoholism, figures given type, ie, depicting drunkenness, were less common, mainly in primitive personalities or in the late stages Read more [...]
Widespread in the literature in recent years have found the study of alcoholics with the scale of internality-externality J. Rotter (Rotter, 1968). According to the concept Rotter, individuals differ in their views about the main source of control over the behavior, that is, by how actors relate their individual expectations of positive or negative reinforcement, or their own efforts or with coincidence, luck, independent of the will of the subject . In the first case it is a internality, in the second - an externality locus of control. The theoretical basis of control - it's a continuum, Read more [...]
Cleveland and M. Sykes (Cliveland, Sikes, 1966) found that alcoholic patients are greater than in healthy, pronounced tendency to feel and your body dirty, disgusting, painful being in a deformed state. A number of studies, in contrast, are characterized as alcoholics people prone to avoidance of strong emotions and feelings did not allow into consciousness thoughts of severe illness and death (Sales, 1971). Correctly, seems to speak of the inability of patients to the formation of strong emotions, except for those arising on egozaschitnomu mechanism (Tsytsarev 1982, Balashov, 1987). The conclusion Read more [...]
The second factor (12%) of the scale USAC and some indicators MMPI came in with the same sign. On its positive pole availability control various situations combined with a paranoid, hysteroid, hypochondria and depression. This reflected the inherent tendency of alcoholics to achieve control on the basis of demonstrative and aggressive behavior within their characteristic manipulative games.
Third factor (8.9%) includes the negative charge on the two scales and USAC Taylor anxiety scale (MMPI) with positive weights scales lie, correction, hypochondria, hysteroid and social introversion. On this Read more [...]