Scientists have discovered the best cure for a hangover

Several shoots of asparagus eaten before meal can save you from a hangover. This is due to a high content of amino acids, which accelerate the decomposition of alcohol.Amino acids and minerals contained in the leaves of asparagus, can alleviate the symptoms of hangover.Scientists from the Institute of Medical Science and Jeju National University (South Korea) studied the mechanism of action of components of this plant on the human body, according to Fox News.Fact- From dehydration that occurs when a hangover, save carrot soup.These DNA.It was found that an extract of asparagus Read more [...]
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Life — How Did It

The transformation of inanimate matter into living - not hopeless delusion medieval alchemists. Man came not from an animal. Homo Sapiens is not the crown of nature, as we used to think, but it is the same principle, as unicellular. Our planet since ancient times has been a kind of Noah's Ark, which is home to the "prototype" of all living things - "every creature." A flu can infect us space. And human civilization is able to colonize planets of distant stellar worlds in much the same as it once out of the universe was brought to Earth life. More? Please. Homunculus Read more [...]
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Born out of crystals?

In its structure, the simplest biological systems and hydrocarbon crystals are remarkably similar. If such a mineral supplement protein components, we get a real protoorganizm. That's what started to see the beginning of the crystallization concept of the origin of life.From what and how life originated? Modern science gathers more data, specifying the nature of the transition from non-living to the living forms of matter. It becomes clear that the geochemical evolution of the Earth led inevitably to biogenic processes, to the origin of life. We have a good idea, both from simple chemical Read more [...]
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The chemical composition and physical-chemical properties of proteins

Mol. weight (MW) of proteins varies from a few thousand to several million (most proteins have mol. weight in the range of tens - hundreds of thousands). B. mostly soluble in water or saline solutions, creating solutions that have the properties of colloids (see). In living tissue proteins in varying degrees hydrated. In solution B. very unstable and easily precipitated by heating or other effects, often losing their native properties, including solubility in the original solvent (coagulation, denaturation). As polymers of amino acids, proteins contain free acid (carboxyl) and basic (hydrated Read more [...]
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Transferase enzymes of the class

Catalyzed reaction Localization in tissues and physiological role of diagnostic value Transaminase carry out the reaction reversible transfer of amino groups of amino acids on any?-Keto acids in many tissues and organs. In the blood activity Characterize very low intensity of the metabolic processes, in particular the synthesis of proteins. Activity serum increases sharply by breakage tissues, especially in infectious hepatitis and other liver diseases, as well as myocardial infarction kinases carry out the reaction carry-phosphoric acid, such as creatine + ADP ATP + phosphocreatine in the muscles Read more [...]
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Enzymes (Enzymes) - are specific proteins which act as biological catalysts are produced by living cells. Enzymes are different from conventional catalysts of its greater specificity (see below), and the ability to accelerate the course of chemical reactions in the normal functioning of the body. Enzymes are present in all living cells - animal, plant, bacterial. Most enzymes in various tissues in very small concentrations, but there are cases where the enzymatic activity of the protein has a big part of the cell plasma, such as myosin in muscle. The molecular weight of the enzyme varies widely, Read more [...]
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Yadonosny machine and physical-chemical properties of the venom-3

Dry poison Cobra retains toxicity when irradiated with gamma rays 60Co at 60 mrad, and the action on solutions of 4 mrad venom (2 mg / ml) gives its antigenic and toxic properties (Lauhatirananda is a., 1970). As can be seen, the effect of temperature and irradiation on the individual fractions snake venoms from different families are different. Ammonia and carbolic acid diluted 1: 20 and sublimate 1: 1000 or impair the activity of the poison, caustic alkali in a dilution of 1: 10 activity weakens and destroys poison for 10 minutes. The composition of snake venom are water and dissolved proteins Read more [...]
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Yadonosny machine and physical-chemical properties of the venom-2

Many aspidovyh neurotoxins consist of 61-62 amino acid residues in the same chain, joined four disulfide bonds (Lee, Peng, 1961). Toxic venom fraction N. naja contains 61 amino acid residues and 8 cystine. Unlike kobrotoksina it has an alanine residue 2, 3 - phenylalanine, proline, and a lot more no methionine, has terminal amino acids-isoleucine and the C-terminal alanine (Nakai is a., 1970). Yang et al. (1969) from the main component of the neurotoxic venom N. naja identified 62 amino acid residues: 8 - aspartic acid, 7 - glutamic acid, 8 - threonine, 4 - serine, 2 - proline, 7 - glycine, Read more [...]
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Yadonosny machine and physical-chemical properties of the venom of scorpions

Scorpions jointed flexible "tail", or metasoma (zadnebryushie) ends swollen tail segment, in which it has its yadonosny device consisting of two yadoprodutsiruyuschih glands associated with the outlet ducts hooklike sharp sting. Under pressure from the muscle layer surrounding the gland, immediately poured poison into prey. Scorpion venom refers to toksoalbuminam. It is rather thin, clear liquid acid reaction. Poison Lei. quinquestriatus in the first portion is transparent, then opalescent, the last portion - milky viscous liquid, the amount of servings - respectively 0.45, 0.32 and Read more [...]
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What do we know about the brown sugar-2

In molasses from any source contains large amounts of potassium and calcium. In sugar beet molasses found more than 100 mg / kg of iron, 34 mg / kg of zinc, 18 mg / kg of manganese are present in smaller amounts cobalt (0.59 mg / kg), boron, copper and molybdenum. In cane molasses found chrome, tin, nickel, barium, molybdenum, silver, zinc, titanium and cobalt - all in less than 1 mg / kg, and more - calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and manganese. Both molasses also present cations of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic and their accumulation observed during the process. For example, beets Read more [...]
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Bread and bakery products

Bread is included in the daily diet of the child. Bread rich in carbohydrates and vegetable proteins. Biological value of the proteins bread is relatively low due to the lack of essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine. Bread is rich in minerals, especially trace elements, and contains significant amounts of vitamin B. In the nutrition of young children can be used as wheaten, and rye bread (wheaten digested and absorbed better). Digestibility of grain depends on grinding flour. The finer the grind, the higher digestibility. Rye bread contains a lot of fiber that promotes normal digestion. Read more [...]
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The need for young children in essential nutrients and energy-3

Lack of protein has adverse effects on the central nervous system, as evidenced by the experimental data and extensive clinical and epidemiological observations. In children receiving little protein, slowing the formation of speech, are lagging behind in psychomotor and intellectual development. Interesting are the details of that with low-protein diet in animals significantly reduced the ability of bone to capture phosphorus, calcium in the bone is reduced, inhibited its growth and development [Golikov K. K, 1974 Simakov PV, etc. 1974]. The role of protein in the body is not limited to plastic Read more [...]
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The need for young children in essential nutrients and energy

All this indicates that the child should receive the required age of the protein (Table 2). Table 2. Need in proteins of infants and young children Age Type of feeding Proteins (g) Includes per kg body weight per day animal proteins g% 0-3 months 4-6 months 7-12 months 1-3 years Natural Same Artificial 2,0-2,5 3.0 3,5-4,0 3,5-4,0 53 2,0-2,5 3.0 3,0-3,5 2.8 37100 100 90 80 70Recommended by FAO / WHO (1974) number protein per 1 kg of body weight: for children aged 0 to 3 months - 2.4 g, 3 to 9 months - 1.85 g, 6 to 9 months - 1.62 g and from 9 to 12 months - 1.44 g for children 1 to 3 years Read more [...]
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Peptides - Compounds consisting of two (dipeptides), three (tripeptides) and more (polypeptides) of amino acid residues linked together by peptide bonds. Peptides from incomplete acid (in the body - the enzymatic) hydrolysis (see) proteins as well as synthetic. Many biologically active substances, including certain hormones (see), and antibiotics (see), are peptides. See also amino acids, proteins. Peptides - Organic compounds consisting of amino acid residues linked by peptide (-NH-CO-) connection. Peptides may consist of two, three, four or more amino acid residues and they are called, respectively, Read more [...]
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Pepsin (Pepsinum) - enzyme of gastric juice. The molecular weight of 35 000. Pepsin molecule consists of 340 amino acid residues. Pepsin hydrolysis of proteins into peptides. Optimal action at a pH of about 2.0. Preceded by pepsin - pepsinogen produced by cells of the gastric mucosa, becomes pepsin in the presence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. Pepsin - a drug (Pepsinum siccum) - produced by extraction from the gastric mucosa of pigs, sheep and calves. Apply with hypo-and anatsidnyh gastritis, dyspepsia. Pepsin designate the interior of 0.2-0.5 g per reception 2-3 times daily before Read more [...]
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Artificial and mixed feeding

When creating a mix of domestic "Baby" and "The Kid" for these purposes, special techniques - homogenization of milk-based and vacuum spray drying. Also, in the mix "Baby" introduced citrate sodium and potassium salts, which react with the calcium of milk and precipitate. As a result, the concentration of calcium is reduced, which contributes to the formation of soft and loose clot casein under the influence of rennet gastric juice. In the preparation of a mixture of "The Kid" for these purposes flour. Adding flour contributes to the formation of soft Read more [...]
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Metabolism and biosynthesis of proteins

Exchange and biosynthesis. Proteins play an important role in human and animal nutrition, as a source of nitrogen and essential amino acids (see below - Protein in the diet). In the digestive tract B. digested into amino acids, in the form which is absorbed into the blood and undergo further transformations (see the nitrogen metabolism). Enzymes acting on B. (protease, proteolytic enzymes) are themselves proteins. Each of them specifically cleaves specific peptide bonds in the protein molecule. To proteolytic enzymes, digestive tract include gastric pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatic Read more [...]
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Deforming osteoarthritis and intervertebral osteochondrosis of primary and secondary prevention-10

The weakening of the hormonal and sympathetic elements of this system has a negative effect on the trophic tissues, their blood supply primarily in the synovial membrane of the joint, and it is known to be the main source of supply of the cartilage. Epiphyseal cartilage due to their structural features has no blood vessels or nerves, and it is powered by means of osmosis and diffusion of the shell as a joint (synovial fluid) and capillary epiphyseal bone (by serum). As a result of the deterioration of blood supply is reduced synovial membrane transport energy to cells and plastic materials and Read more [...]
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Enzymes and aging-5

The blood and lymph young people contains a large number of proteases, sufficient to destroy almost all emerging mutant cells. However, with age, serum reduced proteolytic capacity and at the same time, the number of inhibitors increases, so that the mutant cells in a large part to survive and divide. As a result, they develop multiple pathological conditions that are considered characteristic of old age. On the basis of these facts can be explained, thus greatly increasing frequency in the elderly cancer. Obviously, if for a long time - it is best for the rest of life, from a certain age, such Read more [...]
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Trypsin and chymotrypsin (EC 3444 and 3445 3446)

Trypsin and chymotrypsin A and B - endopeptidase, they break the internal (ie, removed from the ends of the chain) peptide bonds in proteins and peptides, mostly in certain places. Chymotrypsin produced in duodenal juice. From bovine pancreas are two inactive proenzyme -? - And?-Chymotrypsinogen, which turn into an active enzyme by the action of trypsin. The molecular weight of 24,000 chymotrypsinogen and chymotrypsin 22,000. All of these enzymes break down proteins into peptides. In addition, they attack the esters and amides of aromatic amino acids (Neurath, Dixon). Chymotrypsin cleaves denatured Read more [...]
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