External clip, June 2000Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5Tony DizinnoBurn ambitiousness: Lisa Metalworker keeps her aplomb in the Badwater Ultramarathon.Go for an promiscuous six-mile run in Southerly California's Demise Vale and you'll overheat as apace as an air-cooled Volkswagen chugging concluded Teton Toss in Revered. Extremum passion compromises your eubstance's power to coolheaded itself, fifty-fifty to a deadly extent. But that doesn't Read more [...]
YES, THIS IS FOR YOU DON'T Trouble. Wintertime races enter all shapes and sizes. Hither are Around guidelines to service you Uncovering THE Everlasting FIT. YOU ARE: a pretty fit weekend warrior who's ne'er well-tried a wintertime case. YOU SHOULD: get your feet wet by active on a squad. Both the Wax Taylor Quadrangle and the Son of Hellhole (see redress) fling squad divisions, significance you deliver to vie lone in a one wash leg (a 30-mile cycle razz, say, or a 10-mile run). Mostly speechmaking, you'll motive to corroborate one to two hours of aerophilic activeness. Homework leastwise octonary Read more [...]
Disarticulation forearm produced instead of amputation shoulder, often in military field. Prosthetics rotation axis artificial elbow joint is located below the axis of rotation to the opposite side. The operation usually produces a circular manner.
Lower joint space by 1/6 of the circle elbow circular slit cut through the skin with subcutaneous fat and superficial fascia. The projection of the joint space on the front surface of the joint is given by the broken line A. The horizontal part corresponds to the gap of the radial head, and angled-slit on the coronoid process. The top point of the Read more [...]
Yadonosny apparatus consists of a serpent yadoprodutsiruyuschih glands, ducts and yadoprovodyaschih teeth. The most complex and complete yadonosny apparatus in viper (Viperidae) and yamkogolovyh (Crotalidae) snake. His teeth are mounted on a short maxillary bone can rotate, closing the mouth lie along the edge of the jaw back in disclosing lifted and take sheer, "fighting" position. For toxic uzheobraznyh snake (Colubridae) characteristic grooved teeth on the upper jaw backward, for aspidovyh (Elapidae) and marine (HydrophIIdae) snakes - short tubular fixed teeth in the front of the Read more [...]
Option 1. Internal business parapatelyarny cut from slightly above and below the middle of the patella to the level of domestic condyle tibia. After opening the knee joint is its examination, the damaged meniscus removed by additional external parapatelyarnogo cut. Electric drill is channel in internal condyle of the tibia, going up and front to back. Channel is shown in the joints more anteriorly from the inner intercondylar tubercle. Then drilled a channel in the outer condyle of the femur, respectively, the attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament. In the external epicondyle of femur Read more [...]
Fig. 21. Determine the strength of cruciate and collateral ligaments of the joint:
and - full extension b - bending angle of 30 °; in - bending angle of 90 °
Damage to the anterior cruciate ligament the athletes - the most severe type of injury and occurs quite often (Fig. 21a, b, c).
Symptoms. In the acute phase there is the phenomenon of hemorrhage into the cavity Knee and paraartikulyarnye tissue pain along the inside and outside of the joint gaps. Movement in the joint is limited and painful, marked instability of the knee. In a study of positive symptom defined "front of the drawer." Read more [...]
There are the following fractures of the pelvis (Figure 14):
Fig. 14, A, B, C, D. Types of fractures of the pelvisBoundary fractures of the pelvis (Separation of the upper and anterior-anteroinferior iliac spines, lateral and longitudinal fractures of the wing of the ilium, sacrum fractures below the sacroiliac joint, fractures of the coccyx.
Pelvic ring fractures without disturbing
its continuity (single or two-way branches broken pubic bone, one-or two-sided fracture of the ischium, the pubic bone fracture on one side and the other of the ischium).
Pelvic ring fractures in violation of its Read more [...]
In poliomyelitis mainly affects motor neurons anterior horns of the spinal cord. Often there are also inflammatory changes in the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves, brain stem, the nuclei of the midbrain and the anterior central gyrus cortex. Meninges swollen, red-blooded. Gyrus somewhat flattened. The substance of the brain, especially the spinal cord (in the lumbar, thoracic and cervical enlargement) and medulla - flabby, gelatinous, full-blooded, with diapedetic hemorrhages. Pattern of gray matter cleared on the cut surface it sinks, and white - protrudes. In tonsils, mesenteric lymph Read more [...]
Assessment of the anterior abdominal wall is important in the diagnosis of acute surgical diseases abdominal cavity. The first thing you notice is any swelling of the stomach or the fall and their participation in the breath. As a rule, in the painful area is seen limiting trips abdominal wall compared with healthy portions. With the spread of the entire anterior abdominal wall can hardly participate in the breath and it becomes only diaphragmatic. An example of this condition are the first hours of peritonitis.
Sunken abdomen with a small protrusion in the epigastric region, the presence of Read more [...]
The reason sexual weakness may serve as a weakening or complete cessation of the hormonal activity of the testicles - hypogonadism. This disorder can be primary and secondary. Primary hypogonadism caused by congenital hypoplasia, trauma, inflammatory diseases of the testes. In secondary - testicular function violated by diseases of other endocrine glands and central nervous system.
The influence of endocrine glands on sexual function can be traced very clearly with their diseases. So disease thyroid cancer in early childhood leads, as a rule, to underdevelopment of gonads and adrenal tumors, Read more [...]
Thoracic cavity (Deleted anterior chest wall): 1 - aortic arch, 2 - pulmonary trunk, 3 - left phrenic nerve, 4 - pericardium, 5 - pleura, b - right lung 7 - upper hollow Vienna.
Thoracic cavity (cavum thoracis) lies within the chest, but at the top of a bit beyond its limits, speaking base of the neck (above the level I ribs). From below thoracic cavity limited aperture (see). Capacity of the chest is different depending on the growth and build of the man, it is continuously and dramatically change with respiratory movements. In the cavity of the chest to the left and to the right are the Read more [...]
Refers to the earliest form of systemic degenerative diseases of childhood. First described by Werdnig (G. Werdnig) and Hoffman (J. Hoffmann). Currently, there is a clear clinical characteristics of the disease, while its etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown. Disease a hereditary origin with autosomal recessive type of transmission (see Genetics). Of interest is the fact that the sick children in the same family are often the same sex. Pathology of the disease is reduced to degenerative anterior horn cells of the spinal cord with secondary degeneration of motor fibers anterior roots and Read more [...]
Rear artery foot (a. dorsalis pedis) is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery, located between the extensor tendons I finger and long finger extensor (Fig. 414).414. Arteries of the back surface of the foot.
1 - rete malleolare mediale; 2 - a. dorsalis pedis; 3 - aa. tarseae mediales; 4 - a. arcuata; 5 - r. plantaris profundus; 6 - aa. metatarseae dorsales; 7 - aa. digitales dorsales; 8 - a. tarsea lateralis; 9 - r. perforans a. peroneae; 10 - a. tibialis anterior.Its branches: a) the lateral tarsal artery (a. tarsea lateralis) starts below the ankle joint, supplies blood Read more [...]
The third ventricle of the brain (Ventriculus tertius) represents the residual space of diencephalon diencephalon) and contains the cerebrospinal fluid. It is shaped slit covered ependymomas (Fig. 469), limited to the walls: 1) lateral - medial surface of the thalamus, and 2) the front - a set of columns (columnae fornicis), anterior commissure of the brain (commissura cerebri anterior) and Border plate, B) back - Spike leashes pineal brain back soldering brain, and 4) the bottom - the hypothalamus and the posterior perforated substance of the brain, and 5) the top-ependymal plate surrounding Read more [...]
1. Spinotalamichesky way divided into lateral and anterior (tr. spinothalamicus lateralis et anterior) (Fig. 496). Contains fibers conducting impulses from the skin receptors that perceive tactile, thermal and pain sensitivity of all parts of the body except the skin and organs of the facial part of the head. From skin irritation seen similar receptors of trigeminal nerve. First neuron spinotalamicheskogo way unipolar forms, located in the intervertebral site. Its dendrites are free nerve endings (feel pain), calf Krause (perceive cold), Ruffini corpuscles (perceived warmth). Axons in the Read more [...]
Spinal nerves (Nn. spinales), mixed nerve structures, including motor, sensory and autonomic fibers. Depending on their exit from the spinal column are divided into five groups: 8 cervical (nn. cervicales), 12 thoracic (nn. thoracici), 5 lumbar (nn. lumbales), 5 sacral (nn. sacrales) and 1 coccygeal (n. coccygeus). Only 31 pairs of nerves. Spinal nerves formed by connecting the peripheral sensory fibers posterior spinal root, sprouting motor cells anterior spinal columns, which form anterior spinal root, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers. In this case, each segment of the spinal cord corresponding Read more [...]
Front cord. Formed in four ways and white anterior commissure.
1. Front corticospinal way (Tr. corticospinalis anterior) basically starts from the pyramidal cells of the anterior central gyrus of the cerebral cortex. Descends the brainstem neperekreschivayas, reaching the spinal cord, where each segment goes to the opposite side.
2. Front spino-thalamic way (Tr. spinothalamicus anterior) is located lateral to the previous path and in front of the anterior column of gray matter. Formed fibers crossed beam rear pillar cells spinal cord. Ends in the thalamus.
3. Vestibular-spinal Read more [...]
The nuclei of gray matter. In the posterior columns (Fig. 459) distinguish the superficial marginal zone (zona terminalis), consisting of a small nerve cells, more deeply located spongy substance (substantia spongiosa), formed by the two-stream cells, whose axons are in the white matter and combined into pathways. On these routes are conducted nerve impulses from the nuclei of the spinal cord in its other segments or head brain. Sponge substance covered with a gelatinous substance (substantia gelatinosa), consisting of a small nerve and glial cells, and then have our own core rear pillar (nucll. Read more [...]
Spinal cord (medulla spinalis) is a set of nuclei of gray matter and white nerve fibers forming a pair of 31 segments. The spinal cord has a length of 43-45 cm and a mass of about 30-32, the composition of each segment includes the portion of spinal cord, corresponding sensor (sensitive) root entering the dorsal side, and the motor (motor) root, leaving the ventral surface of each segment.
Dorsal the brain is located in the spinal canal, is surrounded by membranes, between which the cerebrospinal fluid circulates. At a length of the spinal cord occupies the space between I and the top cervical Read more [...]