Cytotoxins - antibodies resulting in immunization cellular elements. When administered to the same species of animal cells of an organ taken from an animal of another species, induces the production of antibodies (see) directly to the cells of the body (organ specificity). On organ specificity cytotoxins based cytotoxic sera that are produced by immunizing animals and used in medicine to destroy harmful cells (eg, tumor). The doctrine of the cytotoxin was developed Mechnikov and the staff who have also demonstrated a fundamental difference in the action of large (destructive effect) and small Read more [...]
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Serological tests - immunological methods, in which the known antibody (diagnostic serum) determined unknown antigen or a known antigen (diagnostic tools) - unknown antibody. Serology widely used in a variety of infectious diseases, as well as to identify blood groups and species specificity of the protein. In infectious disease detection in serum of patients with antibodies to a particular type of agent with negative bacteriological examination to determine the etiology of the disease. In the case of a pure culture of the pathogen with the appropriate sera determine its species. Serological Read more [...]
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Determination of blood group-2

Antigen detection system AB0 (H) made by three main methods: a quantitative method of absorption of agglutinins is simple, avoiding the influence of various contaminants carrier subject, but is not sensitive enough, serological methods of absorption-elution and mixed agglutination very sensitive and are generally used to determine blood group in the traces of a small size. These methods are based on the ability of antibodies? and? absorbed by the corresponding antigens A and B. The disadvantage of methods absorption-elution and mixed agglutination, it is essential for them to use diagnostic Read more [...]
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Determination of blood group-1

System P also used to determine group identification of the blood. P antigen not resistant to environmental factors and is present in red blood cells in approximately 70-80% of the European population. Different people have different antigen R by the expression - a strong, moderate and weak. Weak antigen can not be detected in traces of blood or found only in a very fresh stains. Strong antigen P is detected in the following significant limitations - from 4-5 months. To determine the group supplies blood traces in P requires 40-50 mg of blood stains. At the same time necessarily taken into Read more [...]
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Determination of blood group

Determination of blood group carried out to identify the possibility of its origin from a certain person. In the erythrocyte, serum and blood enzyme systems contain a large number of transmission by inheritance of antigens (proteins), some combination of which every system characterizes a particular blood type. Group membership is defined as a trace of blood on the physical evidence, and sent in blood samples seized from the victims and suspects. Comparison of antigenic set of blood in the various systems in the test tracks and samples can comment on the possibility or impossibility of the origin Read more [...]
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Tests of specific and non-specific immunity

Tests of specific immunity 1.       Reaction blast transformation of lymphocytes (RBT). Determined by morphological methods in a three-day culture of lymphocytes under the fitagemagglyutinina (PHA), and water-salt extract and glycoprotein fraction obtained from the patient's tumor tissue. RBT in some patients increased to 20-24% (normal 8%). 2.       Reaction inhibition of leukocyte migration (RTM) studied capillary method. As the antigen used the same water-salt extract and glycoprotein fraction of the tumor. Tests of non-specific immunity 1.       Reaction spontaneous Read more [...]
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Diagnosis of liver and abdominal

Scintigraphy (scanning) of the liver. In recent years this study acquired a certain importance in relation to the frequency of hidden metastases in the liver, because palpation study, only 47% of cases, you can correctly identify the true dimensions of the body, not to mention the diagnosis of metastases (Ariel, Bruceno, 1976). So, Sugarbaker et al. (1977) conducted a study 55 patients with primary breast cancer with suspected metastases liver, combining isotopic study of the body with the simultaneous determination of carcinoma and carcinoembryonic antigen serum (CEA or CEA) **, and liver function Read more [...]
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Pathogenesis of rheumatic fever

Based on numerous experimental studies and clinical observations can reveal the following main pathogenesis of rheumatic fever. 1. Streptococcus, often tonsillar infection (Primary etiologic antigen). 2. Violation immunity to infection due to the weakness of self defense mechanisms of adaptation or reserves, so that is not balanced by the effect of the primary antigenic stimulus and creates a stable immunity to infection of beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A, as is the case with the majority of people are also exposed to this infection. 3. As a result of immunologic abnormalities in connective Read more [...]
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Precipitation - is serological reaction is in the interaction of soluble antigen-antibody, followed by deposition of fine sediment (precipitate). Precipitation reaction to determine the presence in the material of unknown antigen by adding a known antibody or antigen with a known - unknown antibody. Precipitation is worse in the absence of salts. Optimum precipitation is in the range of pH = 7,0-7,4. Precipitation mechanism similar to the mechanism of agglutination. Under the influence of immune serum reacted with the antigen decreases the degree of dispersion. It is necessary that serum and Read more [...]
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Myositis parasitic origin

When trichinosis myositis phenomena caused the introduction of Trichinella in muscles of the extremities, tongue, diaphragm, intercostal and oculomotor. According to NN Ozeretskovskaya and AM Wiechert main clinical symptoms of acute trichinosis (fever, swelling, skin rash, eosinophilia) and the concomitant complications (periarteritis nodosa, myocarditis, nephritis, vasculitis) can be considered acute trichinosis as a manifestation of "secondary collagenosis", which to some extent confirms the efficacy of ACTH in respect of relief of acute symptoms of trichinosis. When cysticercosis Read more [...]
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Suppression of the immune response in cancer-1

Interesting to follow and another analogy. Pregnancy is always accompanied by a temporary atrophy of the thymus. This is again due to the influence of hormones and stereoidnyh aims physiologically reduce protection of the mother. After the birth weight of the thymus and its functional activity is completely restored. In cancer of the thymus gland also undergoes involution. In the last stage of the disease of the thymus tissue is almost devoid of lymphoid cells. This indicates a complete depletion of the protective resources and progressive poisoning of thymic tumor poisons. In one case of Read more [...]
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First Line of Defense

Another category of cells of the primary defense against tumors are macrophages. These cells, open Ts Mechnikov back in 1882, along with polimorfonoyadernymi leukocytes and blood monocytes into the system of phagocytic cells. In reactions against tumors particularly important role is played by tissue macrophages, which are widespread in different organs: the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs, intestines, skin, nervous tissue. When administered intravenously to animals small particles (diameter less than 5 mm) inhibited the activity of macrophages (in lymphocytes, these particles Read more [...]
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Normal course of the immune response-1

Helper T-cells at the same time convey information about the antigen resting B-cells, if they were not self-stimulated antigen. B-cells start to differentiate into plasma cells and multiply as long as IL-2 is released. Plasma cells produce immunoglobulin M in a few days, and then switched to the synthesis of antibodies of the class G. Antiviral immunity peaks within a week after infection. Destruction of infected cells at this stage can quickly eliminate the disease, after which the production of T-killer cells and antibodies becomes physiologically inappropriate. The next stage of the immune Read more [...]
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Normal course of the immune response

Under the electron microscope shows that the surface B-cell is covered with deep folds and numerous villi (the surface of T-cells smooth). On the membrane of B-cell immunoglobulin receptors are present nature, and their relationship to the antigen induces cells to divide. From each parent cell clone formed subsidiary of lymphocytes that produce antibodies of the same specificity. When these antibodies into the blood, where they are labeled antigen molecule to destroy the other components of the immune system, in particular complement. The complement system consists of more than 10 proteins, Read more [...]
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Antibodies against cancer-2

If you stand on the view that the tumor does not have any specific proteins that are different from their own body, or only undergo antigenic simplification (this hypothesis was first proposed by G. Green in 1954), the antibodies to them can not occur . However, back in the 30s has been shown repeatedly that the blood of cancer patients circulating antibodies to the tumor rather than normal tissue. In model experiments it was shown that these antibodies may play a biological role of unequal. In some cases, they hurt along with complement the tumor cells, in others, on the contrary, protect tumor Read more [...]
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Tumor antigens-2

Following the AFP was detected and another carcinoembryonic antigen detection is with a high-radioimmunoassay method is widely used in clinical oncology. In normal conditions the antigen inherent in embryonic cells and in adults may be present in trace amounts. Its concentration increases in cancer and less dramatically - in some inflammatory diseases of the internal organs. It is believed that tumorigenesis is associated with reactivation of the gene coding for the synthesis of this protein, however, as a number of other embryo-specific products. Gregarious-specific or differentiation antigens Read more [...]
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Tumor antigens

When tumors are often used immunodiagnostic laboratory methods based on the action of lymphokines, which is a reflection of the lymphocyte response to a particular antigen. One of the original properties of neutrophils and macrophages is their ability to stick to a foreign object (cell adhesion). If in the same time period lymphocytes interact with known antigen, into the environment comes chemoattractants - substances that promote the movement of adherent cells. Specific products of T lymphocytes are responsible for "the effect of detachment" (or suppress sticking), which is easy to Read more [...]
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Hemagglutination - Bonding and precipitation of red blood cells. Distinguish between active and passive hemagglutination. Active hemagglutination occurs when the action on the red blood cells antibodies lectins (substances extracted from plants), and viruses (influenza, etc.) - Viruses, antiviral sera neutralized, lose the ability to cause hemagglutination, so the reaction of the active hemagglutination used to determine the titer of virus neutralizing antibody titer, as well as to determine the nature of the test virus. Active hemagglutination widely used to determine group membership - the Read more [...]
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Reaction microdiffusion double agar-2

Soon after setting the agar wells fill the equivalent volume of the reactants. The central place ejaculate (as antigen), and in the side - the blood serum of women and men, cervical mucus, etc., in any combination of the solution. These substances wells filled with individual syringes or micropipettes to 1 ml. Well enough to fill 0.01 ml reagent. Filled thus kept in glass petri dishes on matches, moisture (wet piece of gauze). These cups can be stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator. After 24 hours (most first) precipitation ends. After the reaction is separated from the coverslip Read more [...]
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On the term relative infertility

Several authors have found various immune processes in the body of the spouses. Thus, El-Alfi et al (1970) indicate the presence of a positive reaction blast transformation of lymphocytes in 16.6% of patients. According to PIImke (1970), in the serum of infertile men are determined by circulating antibodies at high titer are directed against testicular and not spermiypokryvayuschego antigen (SPA) derived from the seminal vesicles. A study of the immunological relationship between spouses at relatively barren marriage, assumed various causes of this condition, which, in our opinion, can be grouped Read more [...]
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