Pressures caused by terrain. Avalanches

Avalanches are sometimes called "tiger in the skin of the lamb." This is a figurative comparison is largely true. Avalanche that came in motion, and rushing snow masses - the most terrible, the most insidious danger of mountains in any season. Caught in an avalanche of dry snow, man gasps from penetrating into the airways of tiny particles of snow dust. Avalanches of wet snow, which has a huge weight (1 m3 of powdery snow weighs 60-80, wet - 200-300, wet - up to 800 kg), literally buried alive, caught in their rights. Moreover, in the fall of dry snow avalanches, which speed Read more [...]
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Uncertain search

To search organized several groups, which are sent: the route of the victim group and meet her, and in the intermediate points on the route shorter routes, as well as to explore the foot of the slope (the mouth of the corridors, avalanche Reach, cracks) and possible forced descent. Group should have the skills and software to perform the detection of the victims as the lead group spasotryada. In the highlands of mass recreation and tourism can search in the valley or on the slopes. In such cases, combing should attract a large number of organized groups and have the search chain within the Read more [...]
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Movement on avalanche slopes

The distribution pattern of the National Assembly on the ice-snow slopes in Fig. 4b. Of the 90 National Assembly on these slopes of 38 people (42%) died in avalanches, and the overwhelming number of avalanches caused by the teams. Athletic skills in distress in avalanches covers discharges: III - 4 people, II-10, I - 9, masters and candidates for the master-15. This gives reason to believe that in this case we are dealing with a mass that is typical for all the flaws. Analysis of the behavior of groups, caught in an avalanche, shows that we are talking not about the mistakes in the Read more [...]
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Search and rescue operations in a mountain hike

Emergencies arising gornoturistskih hikes are the result usually misconduct party and its leader. Planning routes in the mountains, tourists have to know the nature of the mountains and the light of this thread to plan a route, select the track and the road, apply the most appropriate in each case, the tactics and techniques of movement and insurance. Ignoring the objective laws of nature leads to the creation of emergency situations. Near misses critical conditions occur in the mountains because of the sharp deterioration in the weather section of the complex terrain, which makes orientation, Read more [...]
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Searches in avalanche

Search tactics in an avalanche is different depending on the avalanche from the slopes or out of the gully. In the case of a powerful storm to search for the maximum number of people involved, and often the equipment, such as bulldozers. Search tactics are determined by the capabilities of the organization and security of a large number of rescuers, which required them to split into separate groups and the establishment of zones of work, shift work, etc., requires intelligence overlying slopes and if necessary, challenge the artificial secondary avalanches, which, however, does not exclude Read more [...]
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Avalanches

Avalanche - a mass of snow falling or sliding off the steep slopes of the mountains. Avalanches occur mainly in mountainous areas where snow accumulates a lot of that at the slightest shake of air is threatening to collapse. Hot air cause very easily. Suffice to say something loudly or shout. The resulting echo, which is an acoustic wave propagating in the vast territories and repelled by the obstacles along the way. This wave causes a slight concussion and avalanches, which is quite enough, the snow started to go with them. Avalanches often begin to descend, when the air is very cold, and Read more [...]
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Stir in the avalanche zone

To not get in the shower, not enough to know where they can be expected, it is necessary also to know how to behave in the avalanche site to observe certain rules of movement. The main thing - do not cut the avalanche better work around dangerous place party. If this is not possible, then move down the slope best straight up, at least - an angle, as the transverse (horizontal), the intersection of the snow layer can "cut" it, to break the adhesion strength of snow from the underlying surface and cause an avalanche. Being in the avalanche site, we can not make any noise and shouting. Read more [...]
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Survive at all costs! Bear Grylls tells

Bear Grylls recommends: * If you are going on a trip, be sure to tell someone where you are going and exactly when you are going to come back. If something goes wrong, as it was intended, you will be missed and will notify the appropriate structures, which will begin the search. * Thoroughly prepare before going or traveling. Get basic information about the geographic region where you are going, get acquainted with the local flora and fauna. Prepare for the conditions of the area - take the appropriate equipment and tools. Pay special attention to clothes and shoes. * Use common sense. If Read more [...]
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Avalanches in the mountains

The mountain is a serious danger of an avalanche. Most often, they occur on slopes with a gradient of 20 to 60 °, and especially within the 30-45 °, usually within 24 hours after a snowfall. No avalanches affect the temperature, soil conditions, and sound. When you are in avalanche-prone areas, it is necessary to know these things. If possible, avoid locations where the steep slope of the newly fallen snow. After the main avalanche recommended that you wait 24 hours. Most victims of avalanches and caused them ourselves. Rain or temperature after the snowfall greatly increases the risk of Read more [...]
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Transportation on the firn and snow

The most favorable structure for transport over icy and snow-6-8 members. Used for the preservation of alpenstocks, ski poles, on the dense icy - ice axes. When lifting the two men go to the lower outposts throughout the rope, fastened, driving in the snow or ski pole alpenstock. The rest are on the sides of the sled. At the command of "pull" the upper pull, and the bottom to avoid jerk pripodymayut sled, pushing them forward. When there are 2 or 3 m for convergence accompanying the rise, taking escort, then the top repeated again the same techniques. When all this is doing downhill Read more [...]
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Maintenance and security tools in the search for avalanches

The basic principle of behavior for avalanche danger and getting in the shower can be the words of the well-known saying: "Saving the drowning - the hands (and feet first head) of drowning." The fact is that being in an avalanche of more than 2 hours, usually lethal threat, while at the same time hope for the rapid emergence of the order, and the more rapid deployment of activism often and hope. Rather extensive analysis of statistical data shows that the majority (70%) caught in an avalanche were found at a depth of less than 2 m at discontinuities in the flow of snow stones, Read more [...]
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Avalanches

Avalanches also inseparable from the mountains, as storms from the seas and oceans. Mountain residents call them "white death" is not accidental. Calm, silent snow slope can suddenly turn into a seething, roaring cauldron. Giant shaft snow, dust, debris, rocks and trees swept away everything in its path, and hide from it is often not possible. Sometimes the amount of avalanches in the hundreds of thousands and even millions of cubic meters. Picking up speed and mass, an avalanche every moment becoming more powerful, bringing death and destruction. One of the most terrible tragedies Read more [...]
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Mountain in winter

Winter in the mountains can already begin the September charges of bad weather and end May snowfall in spring, so that by climbing in the months must be treated as a winter, keeping in mind the organization and tactics of the exit. In the mountains, there is no separate "summer" and "winter" dangers. Given the characteristics of the mountains, all the dangers of winter become more serious, even for experienced climbers and tourists. Where summer were on the trail and even the highway safely hundreds beginners winter can go avalanche and in an instant drop down unwary travelers. Read more [...]
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Avalanche danger

Introductory talk "The emergence of avalanche danger. Search in the avalanches ", carried out on a ski slope, reminiscent of an avalanche removal, or removal of old avalanche safety. In an interview to note that one of the most terrible and insidious dangers trapping climbers in the mountains at any time of the year are avalanches. In the summer, especially after the snowfall, there are short periods of high avalanche danger, it is necessary to consider not only during the ascent, but also in preparation for it. Approximately 90% of all accidents caused by avalanches occurred because Read more [...]
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Extract from cracks and avalanches

Removing failed to crack should occur very quickly, otherwise the victim may freeze. Immediately after the accident to determine the state of a failure. If the victim is able to move around and help himself, he lowered one or two pitches, and he's way Prussika or rising up in the stirrups. If the victim is helpless, later he takes it with friends. When avalanche accidents immediately after the accident to come down to the place of the avalanche circus (if possible) and see the area in search of the projecting parts of clothing, equipment or body. Be sure to put the signalman, who Read more [...]
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Features prospecting tactics

Depending on the nature of the search, there are three main types of work: unspecified search (on the rock mass or in a mountainous area with the uncertainty of the way) trip (by the route, on the ridge, the slopes or on the sidelines in the route) and the search for victims avalanche. You can make general tactical principles for all types of search operations: 1) identify in the search for the most likely (to find the victim) in the area and they are supposed to route search teams; 2) to identify those areas in topographic features that are most likely to find the victim; 3) to Read more [...]
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Rules of overcoming avalanche site

In the absence of ways to bypass when a group there is a problem to overcome the avalanche area, tourists should, coming to this area, stop in a safe place and be prepared to overcome the area, guided by the following rules: 1. Choose the most convenient, most secure overcome avalanche site. 2. Trip participants put on sweaters and storm suits, cover your nose and mouth with a scarf or wear a windproof mask, pull hoods tightly button up collars and cuffs storm jackets, put on gloves. Backpack straps shifted so that it can be quickly cast off his shoulders. Binding weakened or unbutton, Read more [...]
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Special ways to search

It is going to use dogs to search for buried in an avalanche, and the use of radio devices such as "AUTO SIGNAL", called pips, to signal their whereabouts. As you know, the dog finds the person even under the 10-meter-thick layer of snow, and it's not the end for her. For efficient operation of the dog people with avalanche field is removed. Well-trained dogs can easily find buried objects, such as a backpack, and, without stopping, and after making sure that the guide pointed out the place, continue to search for the person. Wire marks the place, and the head works is sending Read more [...]
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Avalanches and snow cornices

Avalanches or avalanche - a mass of snow falling or sliding off the steep slopes. Avalanche education is possible in all areas, which establishes a permanent snow cover. Avalanches can occur at any time of year and day of congestion snow slopes during a snowstorm or after a heavy snowfall due to the low adhesion strength between the new snow and the underlying surface. This is the so-called dry avalanches.   Death by an avalanche June 13, 1990 at 18 hours 30 minutes Moscow time near the Lenin Peak in the Pamir earthquake that caused the avalanche. She put mountaineering Read more [...]
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Avalanches

Avalanche - is snow mass, quickly slipping down the slope of the mountain. The snow that falls in the mountains throughout the year, not to lie still remains: it slowly, imperceptibly, sliding down under its own weight or falls avalanches and ice avalanches. Avalanche can be caused by many different factors: the movement of climbers, the collapsed cornice fall, various atmospheric phenomena. All kinds of ice avalanches are very serious danger, which is in direct proportion to the size of the collapse. Velocity of the collapse of the ice many times the speed of the avalanche and approaches Read more [...]
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