Synthesis Papers on reacclimatization beaver in Russia IV gives Zharkov (1969, p. 10-51). He writes that in the late 20's - early 30's. this century beavers in the Soviet Union were a rarity. Work on artificial dispersal of these animals was started in 1934 (in Latvia - in 1927). In the first stage the only source of breeding material was Voronezh Reserve, from which from 1934 to 1947 exported more than 700 live beavers. In the second phase, starting in 1948, was used along with the Voronezh Belarusian native colony. Winter 1963/64, I. Zharkov said beginning of the third, the final Read more [...]
To solve the problems raised by us at the beginning of studies (see Introduction), required a detailed analysis of the geographical parameters of the study area. For this, as well as design data obtained in the study used the following mapping and other materials:
1) map of the Latvian SSR;
2) map drainage and land areas of the Latvian SSR for 26 sheets, made-Latgiprovodho Thus, M 1: 100 OOO;
3) maps of the Latvian SSR, M 1: 50 and 1 OOO 75 OOO;
4) tablets forest management scale 1: 10 000 and 1: 20 000;
5) taxation descriptions of the materials of forest management;
6) data of annual surveys Read more [...]
Spread beaver in the Oligocene and Miocene, especially in connection existed contributed Eurasia to North America in the Bering Strait (watch article numbered 1.2). M. Menzbir suggested (cited in Dzyakava, 1975a), which in the Miocene between Europe and North America there is a direct link through the "Atlantic Bridge" (watch article numbered 1.3). According to this "bridge" Beavers could enter Europe, creating forms here, united in the genus Steneofiber.
Beavers quickly occupied the central zone of the Eurasian continent and differentiated into two kinds of endemic and Propalaeocastor Read more [...]
Beaver - A mammal rodent (Rodentia Bowdich), a family of beavers (Castoridae Gray) - belongs to the only genus in the family Castor L. Members of this family are inhabitants of forest ponds and narrow coastal strip in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Age genus Castor is calculated from the Middle Miocene - about 15 million years old and the family Castoridae - from the Middle Oligocene, ie, a population of about 30 million years. During its existence the kind of growth fluctuated animals beavers were small, with modern marmot were gigantic.
However, the function of the beaver Read more [...]
The study of literature and research progress in the development of Beaver resources do not allow to doubt the necessity and the possibility of organizing a beaver management.
As for the reintroduction of beavers and further use of resources, there is an extremely wide variety of opinions, covering both fundamental approaches - to be or not to be beavers and Bobrova economy - and details, such as the issue of the number of licenses issued by the same hunter. There are different opinions about whether the required intensive form of such an economy, or rather regulate beaver population by catch Read more [...]
The main cause of the damage caused by beavers some sectors of the economy, the lack of timely information on the population of beavers undesirable from the point of view of human creation and a very rough idea of the number of animals. But it was not always so. There are reports that in the Middle Ages were able to pick up even herds suited beavers, predominantly black (data from A. Stanislavsky a manuscript in Latin on 1229 g - op. by-B. N. Scaloni, 1951). Probably in a similar state of the economy, the industry was in medieval Russia.
For his part, Jean and 3. Vdovinskie obviously Read more [...]
V. Dyakov (1975a) provides an overview of methods used in the Soviet Union to address livestock river otters. All existing methods he brings to four main: statistical, environmental, statistical, and for detecting Morphological and ecological capacity of settlements. According to the author, the statistical method is the most simple and gives a rough idea of the number of animals (Dyakov, 1975a, p. 339).
The essence of this method: in the first phase - to specify number settlements, on the second - using conversion factor to determine the number of animals in the study area (provided that Read more [...]
In 1980, the Ministry of Forestry and Forest Industries of the Latvian SSR received a number of applications of the damage to agriculture and forestry from the activities of beavers. The number of beavers republic at that time was estimated at 7,000 animals. The second half of the summer and autumn of 1980 has an exceptional abundance of precipitation and summer floods that made it very difficult objective assessment of the damage caused by beavers.
Conflict checking carried out on site with representatives of timber industry, representatives of the land user and expert on Bobrova economy. Read more [...]
In the European part of the Russian state mining furs in the second half of the XVII century. decreased even more pronounced than in Siberia. Fishing beavers and otters near Moscow did not bring previous income, production of furs in the North also fell. Government issued a decree banning the fishing of river otters.
However, fur, playing before a large role in the trade turnover of the country, with the formation of the Russian state in the XVII century. large domestic market has become one of the most important products placed on the market of the country. Fur, in addition to their major Read more [...]
The existence of a beaver, as an active regulator of the hydrological regime, has always been closely connected with the environmental situation in the area and thus the economy of nature. On depletion of easily accessible, non-renewable natural resources and the need for immediate increased use of renewable resources and the theoretical solution to the vast range of environmental problems in the past two decades, more and more dedicated to scientific publications, including large. Note message X. Schindler (Schindler, 1979) that the depletion of natural resources, for example, in the U.S. is Read more [...]
Maximizing the benefits of significant beaver resources directly - as a provider of valuable products and indirectly - as edificator environment is impossible without thought of an appropriate management. In turn, the choice of a more complex, intensive forms of such an economy is determined by: 1) the need for maintenance of beaver settlements in all the places where they live to have the right conditions, and 2) the need to fish populations in whole or restrict their activities in areas where significant damage is caused to land reclamation systems and road facilities, with appropriate devices. Read more [...]
Throughout its existence, the beaver was a powerful edificator environment - active control of river flow (in their own "interests" and for the benefit of the ecosystem). Improving living conditions for all life, he made a significant contribution to the economy of nature. Centuries in the territories occupied for centuries beaver, man hunt for him, getting nutritious meat and skins for clothing, and for a long time, a unique remedy - castor. There was a time when the wealth derived from hunting beaver, affecting the economy and politics, and even a cause of war.
Greedy thoughtless Read more [...]
From the huge area occupied by Eurasian subspecies of modern beavers kind of Castor, the beginning of XX century there were only miserable, isolated pockets. No summarizing reports or map of the location of beaver colonies throughout its range. Existing information is inaccurate and even some controversy. The most detailed information Ognev S. (1947). Referring to the AV Fedyushin which, according to him, gave the most complete summary of beavers spread in Belarus, SI Ognev reports that otters remained on the upper course of the river. Berezina and medium - p. Coolant, the middle and lower Read more [...]
The original approach to the economic evaluation of the various ecosystems through energy flows give G. and E. Odum (1978). In this approach, we see a possible solution to the complex problem of feasibility study related to the use of natural resources. These authors suggest the economic calculations made in units of energy consumed instead of the traditional calculation in terms of money. Involves the assessment of both natural resources and human performance, and the resulting energy in the form of "net energy, or useful energy."
This is - a value which remains after the full Read more [...]
The growing food problems makes us look for ways and means to include the turnover of matter and energy as abandoned, and new lands, including the coastal area of inland water bodies, had not used. These territories after leaving Beaver two centuries ago is gradually reduced their natural productivity. Fundamental changes, both quantitative and qualitative, have undergone freshwater resources. All this taken together has caused great damage to the productivity of the hunting grounds. In the last decades of extensive measures to drain agricultural land and forests. Organize large animal farms, Read more [...]
As the growth in the number of beavers has serious opponents of land considered useful addition to the above qualitative and environmental analysis proves conclusively contribution beaver as edificator environment, to the possible economic evaluation of its activities. It should be noted that this is associated with large? difficulties, not least because that assessment of natural resources is not a single methodology. In addition, planning and economic calculations have not yet oriented to the conservation of natural, resources. Therefore consciousness threat of depletion, and in the very Read more [...]
The oldest remains of Subfossil beaver bones in what is now the Latvian SSR are the seventh millennium BC, when the beaver is already reached a considerable size. Starting from the third millennium BC beaver here was an important hunting target, as evidenced by findings of beaver bones in archaeological excavations, where they often are the most common game animal bones - in the settlements "Kaulenkalns" and "Zvejnieki" respectively 66.1 and 59.3%.
Speak of the same place names containing the root word, the concept "beaver" (over 70), and about 40 folksongs mentioning Read more [...]
Growth of beaver resources, and places the density of beavers on existing ideas, really too high, causing more and more conflicts and demands certain action on the part of man. Development beaver herds should be kept under strict control by controlling them with certain biotech events.
S. Schwartz writes (1976, p. 191): "In place of the passive" Conservation "will work to create an optimal environment for establishing biogeocenoses capable of self-regulation in modified human environment." Implementation of a set of biotechnical measures to improve habitat and increase Read more [...]