Regulation of hematopoiesis

Normally, the quantity of waste to the number of red blood cells are destroyed, and their total number has remained remarkably constant. During oxygen starvation caused by any reason, the number of red blood cells increases. Local anoxia bone marrow leads to increased erythropoiesis. Studies have shown that blood plasma of animals subjected to hypoxia, being transfused normal animals, it stimulates erythropoiesis. During oxygen starvation (caused by anemia, breathing gas mixtures with low oxygen content, length of time at high altitudes, respiratory disease, etc.) occur in the body stimulating Read more [...]
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Leukocytes-1

Leukocytes, or white blood cells that play an important role in the protection and recovery processes in the body. Their main functions: 1) phagocytosis, 2) the production of antibodies, and 3) the destruction and removal of proteinaceous toxins. In blood leukocytes approximately 600-800 times smaller than red blood cells. An adult in 1 mm3 of blood contains leukocytes 6000-8000. Increase in their number is called leukocytosis, and a decrease - leukopenia. Leukocytosis is characteristic of pathological (inflammatory) processes, but is also observed in healthy people (in digestion, muscular work, Read more [...]
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Leukocytes

Leukocytes as it would be wrong, as this is the case, call the balls, and even white. They are colorless, transparent lumps of irregular shape. An important feature of leukocytes is their mobility. If you take the blood smear on the glass and immediately viewed under a microscope, you can see how white blood cells "crawl" on the glass. Thus, they are like any self-celled organisms inside our bodies. However, the white blood cells have been shown to students Pavlov managed in its operation of the nervous system through a variety of humoral factors. White blood cell count is much smaller Read more [...]
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Blood group

In 1901 it was discovered that in the blood of healthy people may contain a substance that can cause agglutination (gluing) of erythrocytes of other people. The study of agglutination of red blood cells in a human plasma or serum of another person to create a scientific basis for an important medical event - a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is carried out at a large blood loss, some poisoning (in particular, where the violation of the ability of hemoglobin to bind oxygen), when reduced hemoglobin in the blood, and many other medical conditions. In the past, attempts to blood transfusion Read more [...]
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Tuberculosis of the urinary system

Uroscopy. In the symptomatology mentioned the reaction of the urine, the presence of protein, white blood cells and red blood cells in tuberculosis of the kidneys. To differentiate pyuria or cystic renal origin (equal number of white blood cells in both portions) of pyuria of urethral or prostatic (unequal degree of pyuria in both portions) in women examined the urine, resulting catheter men - urine, obtained by dvuhstakannoy sample. Bacteriologically to explore sediment once or more daily servings of urine. Method Ziehl-Neelsen staining is used more frequently than others, as the most simple Read more [...]
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Clinic poisoning poison snake-5

Degree poisoning depends on the size, sex, snake venom injected quantity and depth of the bite, health, skin properties (moisture, elasticity), the characteristics of the victim and other clothing General and local symptoms bites snake different families and species have their own characteristics. Thus, the bite of viper snakes emerge local pain, decreased skin sensitivity, edema, hemorrhage, venous thrombosis and soft tissues, bubbles, areas of necrosis tissue and lymphangitis and lymphadenitis. At the time of the bite pain is stronger than a pinprick. A few minutes later increased swelling, Read more [...]
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Clinic poisoning poison snake-3

Observed in 74.3% of patients in the first study, leukocytosis (9.0 · · 103-28 103) was replaced later leukopenia (1/3 of patients), followed by the number of leukocytes recovered. In a change in blood pressure was noted in two phases: during the 1st hour after the bite it fell, and then for 2-3 h was observed to increase. With delayed treatment of hemorrhagic edema and excessive bleeding in the internal organs often cause severe collapse and death of the victim. X. A., aged 20, was admitted to the hospital in critical condition 27/VIII 1965 2-2,5 hours after being bitten by a snake. Immediately Read more [...]
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Clinic poisoning poison snake-2

G., 66, admitted to hospital in 1965 23/V1 in serious condition after 2? hours after the bite of the left shin. Seeing the huge Gurza, sick lost consciousness. Neighbors have imposed on the head of a compress of cold water. Paramedic introduced 25% solution kordiamina and 20% solution camphor in oil. State patient improved slightly, then suddenly in the chest in the heart area an unpleasant sensation, and a few minutes later, she again lost consciousness. At the time of admission to the hospital is marked tachyarrhythmia, blood pressure 100/70 mm. Swelling to the upper third of the left Read more [...]
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Agranulotsitarnaya and monocytic angina

Neutropenic angina characterized by heavy state, high temperature (up to 40 °), chills and sore throat. On examination of the mouth and throat of patients show a blurred inflammation of the posterior pharyngeal wall, dirty-gray necrotic disintegration of raids from the edges of the language in the throat and on the tonsils. Often, the tonsils completely necrotic. In the blood number white blood cells falls to 500 and below. Simultaneously, the relative increase number lymphocytes and monocytes. Lymphatic angina - an infectious disease. Characterized by monocytosis in the blood (70-75%) with Read more [...]
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Traumatic depletion

Traumatic depletion (Synonym: wound attrition dystrophy injured) - heavy degenerative process that occurs in chronic toxicity associated with prolonged suppuration in the seriously wounded, in patients with extensive and deep burns. Traumatic depletion also observed in the long-existing chronic suppuration of the pleura, septic arthritis. Traumatic depletion develops after prolonged fever, which is characterized by chills, sweating. On examination, the patient with traumatic exhaustion evident sharp depletion, sallow pallor, trophic disorders such as ulcers (see). Patients sluggish, apathetic, Read more [...]
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Toluene

Toluene (S6N5SN3) - a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor, found in coal tar. The molecular weight of 92,134, t ° melting 94,99 °, t ° boiling 110,625 °, t ° at 22 ° in 1 liter of water dissolves 0.492 g of toluene. Used as a solvent paint, thinner for paints, in the manufacture of explosives, dyes. Enters the body through the skin. In the body toluene oxidized to form benzoic acid, hippuric acid and glucuronides. In high concentrations of toluene pair of narcotic. Toluene the nervous system is stronger than benzene, but much less than benzene affects the blood. Acute poisoning Read more [...]
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Thalassemia

Thalassemia (Synonym: anemia Cooley anemia mishenevidnokletochnaya) - hereditary hemolytic anemia in children. Disease developed in connection with the violation of the synthesis of normal hemoglobin synthesis and preservation of fetal (embryonic) hemoglobin formation degenerative and accelerated destruction of red blood cells. In the USSR thalassemia observed in the republics of the Caucasus and Central Asia. There are two main forms of the disease: thalassemia major - homozygous variant, in which the clinical features are most pronounced, and thalassemia minor - heterozygous variant (see Heredity). Clinically, Read more [...]
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Physiological changes of the blood during exercise-2

In sports medicine, in addition to studying the morphology of the blood, is now becoming common methods for studying the functional properties of leukocytes. These methods allow the study to examine the metabolic processes occurring in the cell, and to identify the enzymes involved in cellular metabolism. For example, glycogen, an energy substance that provides propulsion, phagocytic, digestive and other capabilities of leukocytes. His number the athletes is the same as for non-athletes. However, in a state of acute and chronic fatigue, it is significantly reduced. Change the amount of glycogen Read more [...]
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Physiological changes of the blood during exercise-1

The literature on the definition and OTSE CGO in athletes during exercise is extremely low. However, even the evidence conclusively shows the changes of these parameters, is both to increase OTSE, CGO for long loads, and in reducing the CGO. The intensity of these changes do not reflect the level of functional status of athletes. According to our data, the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin in the peripheral blood after exercise is increased in all athletes, and after 30 minutes rest is returned to the original level at rest. The degree of these changes depends on the Read more [...]
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Physiological changes of the blood during exercise

The greatest number Research on the impact of physical activity on peripheral blood leukocytes was devoted to studying. W. Winternitz (1893), E. Willebrand (1903) found the appearance of leukocytosis after muscle activity. To explain this, there were several assumptions. According to one of them, the increase in the number of white blood cells caused by blood clots that occur in part because of sweating, but mainly due to the transfer of the liquid part of the plasma in the working muscles. Also believe that it is a consequence of strengthening the heart and accelerate the blood circulation, Read more [...]
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Physiological changes of resting blood-2

It should be mentioned that the value of BCC and its components affects orientation of the training process (Table 18). Table 18. Indicators bcc OTSE, CGO and the amount of hemoglobin in athletes with different areas of the training process (M ± m) [Peter A., 1987] The focus of the training process indicators Speed (18 people) Power (14 people) Endurance (19 people) bcc ml / kg OTSE ml / kg CGO, ml / kg Hemoglobin, g / kg 84,5 ± 1,9 37,1 ± 1,0 47,4 ± 1,2 12,4 ± 0,3 90,8 ± 1,6 38,3 ± 0,8 52,5 ± 1,2 14,1 ± 0,27 96,9 ± 2,5 41,2 ± 1,2 55,7 ± 1,3 14,0 ± 0,5Therefore, assessment Read more [...]
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Physiological changes of resting blood-1

The first papers on the study of the state of the blood system in athletes are from the end of last century. In these and subsequent studies examined changes in peripheral blood, arising under the influence of acute exercise, and because of systematic sport. Systematic influence of sports training on number white blood cells was studied by many authors, the study not only their quantitative and qualitative changes. In most of the studies on this subject have shown that white blood cell count under the influence of systematic sports training does not change. However, there is information about Read more [...]
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Physiological changes of resting blood

At first glance, this confirms data Kokaya O. (1963) and others about the negative effects of sports training leucopoiesis. However, until recently, when in fact the only way to assess the effectiveness of leykopoeza was to evaluate bone marrow puncture, it is now possible to study its effectiveness by examining column (CBS) and klasterobrazuyuschey ability (Clos) granulomonotsitopoeza progenitor cells in peripheral blood, by cloning method Pike, Robinson (1970) as modified BV Afanasiev et al. (1976). Using this method solves the deontological problems in obtaining bone marrow in athletes. In Read more [...]
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Splenectomy

Splenectomy - Operation of splenectomy. Produce splenectomy at breaks and injuries, tumors and cysts, some vascular diseases spleen (venous thrombosis, aneurysm), tromboflebiticheskoy splenomegaly and a number of other diseases (see Spleen). Access is from the upper median laparotomy (see), in the presence of adhesions and splenomegaly - from the cut, going sideways, parallel to the left costal arch or thoracoabdominal access VIII left intercostal space with the transition to the anterior abdominal wall. When splenectomy cross between two ligatures ligament spleen and splenic vessels (artery Read more [...]
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Seleznka

Topography of the spleen (a horizontal cut at the trunk XI thoracic vertebra): 1 - stop 2 - spleen: 3 - gate, blood and lymph vessels, spleen 4 - stomach: 5 - liver.Spleen - unpaired parenchymal organs of the hematopoietic system. The spleen is located in the abdominal cavity (Fig.) in the depth of the left hypochondrium. The surface of the spleen in contact with the diaphragm, convex, the opposite, internal - flattened. The spleen is covered by peritoneum, which forms the ligaments that hold the spleen in the abdomen. Between the peritoneum forming phrenicolienal bunch, are blood vessels Read more [...]
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