Signals in neurons at the speed of about 30 meters per second, while in the signals to a computer at the speed of light, that is 10 million times faster. In addition, you can reduce the size of a hypothetical computing environment, equal the human brain to the size of a pin head with nanotechnology, that is reduce even in 1000, that will increase the speed of the signals also in 1000 at the expense of the way. This suggests that it is possible to create a simulation of the human brain that works a billion times faster than the brain. That is, it will stay for 1 second 20 years of subjective Read more [...]
Let us examine a hypothetical paired scenarios global catastrophe, that is, different versions of synergies main factors taken in pairs. It goes without saying that in reality, they will act together, but the pair could become "building blocks" (or, rather, of linkages) for more sophisticated prediction. We give a schematic description of this kind of interaction, in fact, in order brainstorming. Here each pair scenario should not be taken as the final forecast - but not because he's too fantastic, but because it does not account for the influence of even number of factors.
AI Read more [...]
There are suggestions [Penrose 2005] that the human intuition necessitated by quantum processes in the brain. Even so, powerful algorithms can do without intuition. However, there is an option to get around this obstacle by creating a genetically enhanced human, or live a modern man to the brain means of access to the Internet (so-called neyroshunt). There may be other means of integration of live neurons with a conventional computer, and quantum computers. Even normal man, armed with a computer to the Internet, strengthen your mind. Because of this strong AI can get from a computer and union Read more [...]
It may be that the current nature (his risk tolerance, emotional outbursts, lack of logic in the argument) is not compatible with long-term survival of humanity, and for the survival of this nature must be in some way limited. This limitation can be both external - through a strict system of control based on artificial intelligence, and internal - through control individual experiences with neural implants, and to rely on breeding "New breed" of people. Historically, all these methods have been used - and the public control by law, and the establishment of religious concepts as the Read more [...]
Powerful processes of genetic modification of people prosthetic body parts, including the elements of the brain, the brain connect to the computer, the transfer of consciousness computer and so create a new type of risk for people to understand that until quite difficult. The extent to which we can assume human being who added a few genes, and some removed? Are we ready to accept the status of any reasonable human being, have arisen on Earth, even if it has nothing to do with the man himself as a man does not believe and configured to people hostile? These issues are no longer purely theoretical Read more [...]
There are many paths that lead from the biotechnology and brain research the possibility of establishing supernarkotikov. One of the scenarios of the future proposed supernarkotika Strugatsky's novel "Prey things century": a powerful drug that causes a wholly addictive from the first, is very easy to do from the radio and a number of other publicly available components, which directly affect the pleasure center in the brain. This scenario is not associated with the spread of a certain substance, and with the spread of the "knowledge of mass destruction" - how to make it. Read more [...]
So there's nothing surprising in the fact that, sooner or later, intelligence will be completely computer-based, and thus it will be largely focused on self-improvement and will surpass human intelligence in modern times - a continuation of the same evolutionary process that created man himself .
Artificial intelligence is not a perpetual motion machine: the latter does not exist in nature, whereas the intelligence - both human and evolution - quite successfully implemented. Therefore, attempts to create AI rather like trying to create a plane in the XIX century that were so eloquently Read more [...]
Initially the term "singularity" offered Vernor Vinge in 1993, suggesting that when man create a machine that would wiser him, from that point the story becomes essentially unpredictable, it is impossible to predict the behavior of intellectually superior system. Based on the rate of development of electronics, it is speculated that it will happen in the first third of the XXI century. (Vinge: "I wonder if it will happen before 2005 or after 2030.")
By about 2000 E. Yudkowsky came to the idea that there may be a program of artificial intelligence (AI) that can improve itself, Read more [...]
Property soy interact with enzymes and amino acids the body can lead to dire consequences for the brain. Dr. White and his colleagues from the Research Center of Hawaii suggests that some elements of soybeans (isoflavones) can have a negative impact on the areas of the brain that are involved in the formation and training, blocking, in particular, long-term memory.
Long-term studies in Asian countries with a traditional soy diet, established that men are constantly consumed soy (at least two times a week), have more of brain damage compared with those who never used soy products or used them occasionally. Read more [...]
Electroencephalography in mental illness is used for diagnostic purposes and to address the pathogenesis of various diseases, the mechanism of action of pharmacological agents, etc. As one of the methods of study of patients in a psychiatric clinic electroencephalography does not in itself grounds for nosological diagnosis.
Diagnosis can be made only through a comprehensive, first of all clinical, research, patient. Particularly high proportion of electroencephalography in the full range of diagnostic examinations in determining the presence and localization of organic lesions in the brain, with Read more [...]
In current clinical electroencephalography established principle nosological nonspecific changes biopotential brain. In all diseases signs of pathology at the resting EEG considered; desynchronization activity - persistent lack of EEG dominant, slower rhythms (alpha and theta) and the prevalence of high-frequency rhythms and low amplitude; gipersinhronizatsiya activity - the dominance of regular oscillations in the EEG (alpha, beta and theta ) excessively high amplitude, violation of regular oscillations of biopotentials - the presence of the EEG wave components (alpha, beta, theta) is not identical Read more [...]
Encephalitis in children is more common than in adults because children are not only all known forms of primary viral encephalitis, but rare in adults secondary encephalitis, resulting in infectious diseases and certain vaccinations (smallpox vaccination, rabies vaccination). Encephalitis in children are characterized by a polymorphism of clinical symptoms.
Encephalitis should be distinguished from encephalitic reactions with no etiological specificity. They can occur at any infectious disease, and appear in the form of impaired consciousness and seizures in young children, delirium, hallucinosis Read more [...]
Epidemiology. Now epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis in the Soviet Union is only found as a sporadic disease. The source of infection at an epidemic cerebrospinal M. is a sick man or a healthy bacilli carrier. The causative agent of the disease is on the nasal mucosa. Contamination of going airborne. Relatively rarely observed recurrence in the family, school or other group in connection with the first condition. However, around the patient epidemic cerebrospinal M. appears a significant number of healthy bacilli carrier. It is believed that the increase in the number of carriers is a sign Read more [...]
The pineal gland (a synonym of the pineal gland, pineal) - small, about 1 cm long, ellipsoid formation, located in the brain between the superior colliculus, referring to the organs with internal secretion. Pineal gland is part of the diencephalon (epitalamicheskaya region). Consists of dark (neuroglial) and light (pineal) cells developing in bands and small slices. Has a rich blood supply due to vascular pia mater, which covers the pineal gland. Together with the vessels to the pineal body fit sympathetic nerve fibers.
Pineal hormones exert an inhibitory effect on the development of the sex Read more [...]
Brain injury - Mechanical damage to the skull and brain. Mainly occurs in the home, at work for non-compliance of safety, with traffic accidents, with the defeat of firearms or knives.
In traumatic brain injury head brain (see) suffer not only in the application of mechanical force, but in remote areas as the brain moves within the skull in the direction of impact and a second injured spines of the dura mater is exposed protivoudara and hydrodynamic fluctuations. Under the impact of trauma disturbed function of nerve cells of the brain, then its circulation and flow of cerebrospinal fluid. Read more [...]
Treatment of traumatic brain injury
To open craniocerebral injuries are all injuries with a wound of the head, with no damage or injuries of the skull bones. Damage soft tissues of the head can be a bruised, stab, cut, torn, and often scalped wounds. In violation of the integrity of the skull can be cracked, having different length and direction, depressed, perforated and comminuted fractures. Distinguish: penetration (with damage the dura mater) and non-invasive (without damaging it), traumatic brain injury. Penetrating traumatic brain injury the most severe, because a defect in the dura mater Read more [...]
Predoctor care. In all cases of traumatic brain injury victim to keep warm. In open cranial damage must make a stop bleeding from the wound and prevent further infection of the wound. This is usually achieved by imposing aseptic dressings. With bulging brain through the bone defect bandage should not put pressure on him. To do this, the bandage as a "gauze donut." If unconscious, to ensure that the patient did not sink language, with vomiting patient's head should be given to preclude aspiration of vomit. Need to monitor the function of the cardiovascular system and respiratory Read more [...]
Treatment of traumatic brain injury
Closed head injury - arises from blunt trauma and is characterized by symptoms of brain damage, with or without integrity against the skull. In this case, the skin of the head remain intact.
There are three main forms of closed head injury - concussion, contusion and compression of the brain.
Concussion (Commotio cerebri) - Closed mechanical damage of the brain to the development of a specific symptom of violations of its functions without clear focal deposition develops most often in trauma occipital and frontal regions.
On the severity of the clinical picture Read more [...]
Pathology of skull. Diseases of the skull in the first place are the tumor more common osteoma, sarcomas, meningiomas (tumors that develop from the surface epithelium of the elements of the meninges). Tumors usually present initially without clinical manifestations, and only with increasing size (with an increase in the cavity of the skull and on the basis thereof) cause a variety of symptoms caused by brain damage (see), cranial nerves (see). In some cases, tumors grow skull soft tissues of the head.
Surgical treatment of tumors, malignant tumors - combined (surgery and radiotherapy).
By frequent Read more [...]
I - III couples
VII - IX couples
X - XII couples
IV pair trochlear nerve (N. trochlearis), starts from the nuclei located in front of the aqueduct (Sylvius), at the lower tubercles quadrigemina. Comes to the surface of the brain in the upper brain sails, makes here a complete decussation of fibers, skirts the foot of the brain and through the upper orbital fissure is in the eye socket. Innervate the upper oblique muscle of the eye. If it affects the nerve block is marked diplopia - double objects when looking down, a little cross-eyed.
Fig. 2. Topography Trigeminal: 1 - mandibular nerve; Read more [...]