Picture: Picture by Shana NovakYup, that's a 29-inch battlefront cycle mated with a traditional 26-inch backrest roll. It power face uncanny, but, as advertised, this four-inch-travel wheel actually does cast o'er little obstacles with relaxation spell calm accelerating cursorily. The ti Cartilage floated up sway stairs effortlessly and was easier to prink to amphetamine than a wide-cut 29-inch bicycle. As with measure 29ers, it had slimly delayed treatment (larger wheels are slower to channelize) and shined outdo on fast-rolling, forsake terrain, which is why one Tucson-based Read more [...]
Bioprinting or three-dimensional printing of living tissues is a new method in medicine, which is still in the early stages of development. But his consistency in the production and availability of viable tissues and organs is widely recognized.
The basis of this technology is the layer deposition of living cells from the hydrogel, which acts as a specialized ink printers. However, these printed design consisting only of natural biomaterials, not too strong.
Scientists from the Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest (Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine) found a way to solve Read more [...]
17/12/2012 By 2030, humanity learn how to create artificial organs using 3D printers, and this, in turn, will create a new race of people having superpowers. This was said in a report last week by the National Intelligence Council of the U.S. government.
The paper entitled "Global Trends 2030", states that theoretical physicists such as Michio Kaku, already being talked about the possibility of transforming them into cyborgs. "Scientists would soon establish a retinal implant that will give a person the ability of night vision, an enhanced memory and speed of thought in the brain Read more [...]
Cartilage fabric - A kind of connective tissue consisting of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) and a large number of dense intercellular substance. The function of the support. Chondrocytes have different shapes and lie singly or in groups within the cartilage cavities. Intercellular substance hondrinovye contains fiber, similar in composition to the collagen fibers, and the ground substance, hondromukoidom rich.
Depending on the structure of the fibrous component of the intercellular substance are three types of cartilage: hyaline (glassy), elastic (screen) and fibrous (connective tissue).
The Read more [...]
Chondromatosis - a chronic disease that may affect the conservation or development of centers cartilaginous tissue sections are unusual for bones and joints. Distinguish chondromatosis bones and joints chondromatosis.
Chondralloplasia (Synonym: diskhondroplaziya, illness ollier) - congenital disease that results from a violation of the transformation of the cartilaginous bone to bone. In the pathological process involved not all bones, but only some of them. Most often affects the tibial, femoral, and other less shoulder bones. Wrong ossification with the development of the child leads to slower Read more [...]
Chondrodystrophy - this innate system disease caused by cartilage defect development and educational system of the embryo and is manifested mainly of cartilage lesions of bone origin (limbs, skull base). Vice begins to form early: even with a 3-4th week of embryonic development disrupts the normal ossification and growth bones in length of the fruit dies before birth. Normal full-term born children with Chondrodystrophy quite viable. If the diagnosis Chondrodystrophy installed prior to delivery, cesarean section is shown as due to a disproportionately large size of the fetal head, severe birth Read more [...]
Chondrite - an inflammation of the cartilage. Rare, accompanied by a significant degradation of cartilage. Usually chondrite is a complication of infectious diseases (typhus, scarlet fever, influenza, pneumonia, etc.) and there is 2-3 weeks after the disease, often in the costal cartilage and cartilage larynx may develop chondrite and after injury.
In the etiology of chondrite value attached bacterial embolism, or C-deficiency disease, which leads to bleeding under the osteochondral junction, or primary necrosis of cartilage (chondromalacia), followed by the addition of infection. Originally Read more [...]
The most difficult problem of treating patients with congenital unilateral cleft lip and palate is the correction related, secondary and residual deformation of the nose. So, according to most researchers (LA Limberg, 1952 MP Oskolkov, 1964), residual and secondary deformation of the nose and upper lip are observed in 70-80% of patients.
At present there are many methods of surgical correction of secondary and residual deformation of the upper lip and nose. The authors approach to address these strains from different perspectives based on their own ideas about the causes deformities.
Most authors Read more [...]
Tracheotomy an emergency surgery, produced for health reasons, where the obstacle to normal breathing is in the larynx or in the upper part of the trachea.
The indications for tracheotomy is pronounced progressive difficulty in breathing due to mechanical blockage of the larynx and trachea, or the need for a controlled breathing, suction mucus from the lower respiratory tract, often in intensive care. Production tracheotomy in all conditions shown in a very strong or fast rising suffocation when timely delivery of hospital is not available or is itself dangerous. Otherwise tracheotomy should Read more [...]
Chronic trauma characterized mainly slozhnokoordinatsionnym, speed and power, and playing sports with repeated injuries of the knee, recurrent dislocation of the patella and the violation of its stability, as well as in combination with the menisci, ligaments, and other elements of the joint. Anatomical picture of the disease, depending on the time since the injury, and the severity of the regenerative processes most often presented in the form of softening exfoliation, ulceration of the patellar cartilage or femoral condyle of different shape and depth.
Symptoms. The main symptoms of chronic Read more [...]
Skeleton - bone, cartilage, membranous formation in the body of animals and humans that perform support and protective function. Distinguish between external and internal skeleton.
Exoskeleton occurs in the evolution of invertebrates (eg, shells of crabs and oyster shells). For humans and other vertebrates are characterized by internal skeleton. Lifestyle, environment and other factors led to the evolution of the various features of the formation of the skeleton of vertebrates.
The skeleton can be constructed from organic materials (chitin, horn, cartilage), inorganic (silica, lime) and a combination Read more [...]
Athletes may occur damage the ear, throat, etc.
Damage to the ear most often in boxers and wrestlers. When nicked ear necessary to surgical treatment. In the formation of a hematoma between the cartilage and perichondrium ear to ear on the friction surface of the carpet, a glancing blow boxing gloves and the like first aid should be provided only by a physician: the contents of the hematoma is sucked into the cavity received antibiotics, applied a pressure bandage.
Damage to the larynx (Bruises, compression, fractures, cartilage) usually occur in boxing and wrestling. Often observed with hemorrhage Read more [...]
Articular cartilage damage observed in the case of repulsion and lands in the triple jump and long jump, with "hard" landing, especially in the lack of elasticity or mats on the floor, with gymnastic equipment to dismount, when jumping over shells and acrobatics. In these cases, a crack may form on the articular cartilage of the knee and ankle joints. Excessive deep undergrowth (taking the bar to the chest), and the extreme flexion of the joints (landing in track and field) can be crushing the edges of the articular cartilage of the knee and ankle joints (rear edge of the knee and ankle Read more [...]
The problem of acute and chronic trauma cover knee cartilage still remains relatively unexplored as we have in this country and abroad. In the practice of sports traumatology, it is particularly important because of the special frequency and severity of disease, as well as the severity of complications, which is the deforming arthrosis.
The interest in this disease re-emerged in the 60 years of this century. In recent decades there have been numerous reports of chondromalacia patella and femoral condyles covering etiopathogenesis, clinical, diagnostic and treatment methods (R. E. Quterbridge, Read more [...]
This view patella injury in athletes is often the result of gross and repeated once summing knee injury and is found in almost all sports.
Cartilage frequently injured in the central and medial portions of the patella, the internal femoral condyle, rarely observed damage in the lateral section. Zone of damage varied in shape is fuzzy as detachment cartilage peeling, cracking or the formation of stellate subchondral hemorrhage depending on the depth of injury. Later formed erosion, often spreading to the bone.
Mechanism of injury: Direct - impact, impact on bent knee, combined - a combination Read more [...]
Operation "Resection of cartilage cover" is made under anesthesia. Incision of the skin and fascia often internal, parapatelyarny. Has audited the joint. Cartilage lesion is excised with a sharp knife to healthy tissue, exfoliation plate cartilage are removed completely. Ulcers excised "saped" edge, so as to make (their more flat (it is known that "saped" ulcer edges crumble, as the main source of free hondromnyh body that irritate the synovium and cause synovitis.) To stimulate regenerative processes fine needle to make multiple tunneling and bottom edges of the Read more [...]
Fig. 20. Operation Bundy modification D. Shoyleva
Operation Bundy (Fig. 20). The indication for surgery, the patellar cartilage thinning of the cover and the femoral condyle when pronounced degenerative-dystrophic changes cover the patellar cartilage and femoral condyles - lumpy, thinning of the cartilage in a large area (conservative treatment ineffective). In the practice of sports pathology to the operation resorted to an earlier date.
Surgical technique. Anesthesia is parapatelyarny skin incision, fascia on the inside of the knee to the level of the tibial tuberosity. Chiseling knee, Read more [...]
Morbid anatomy. Rickets - The disease occurs during the growth of the organism. The preferential localization of rachitic changes related to the intensity of growth and physiological stress certain parts of skeleton in different periods of childhood.
In rickets have been violations of enchondral, endosteal and periosteal bone formation, especially in the areas of enchondral ossification, where there is the most rapid growth in the first years of life.
The main morphological changes in rickets: a violation of the cartilage in the transition bone, excessive formation of osteoid tissue, lack of calcification Read more [...]
Increase followed by decreased tone of nerve fibers that innervate these organs and tissues leads to disorders of regulation of their blood supply, venous congestion, especially in the venous link of the capillary system, metabolism disorders in cell structures synovium, especially in synoviocytes. With progression of the neuro-vascular disorders due to organ-specific characteristics of these tissue changes occur in the entire capillary network (capillaries move from the periphery into the interior of the shell, zapustevayut), disturbed circulation of fluid in the cell itself, and in the intercellular Read more [...]
Important in the development of the inflammatory process is antigen-antibody reaction, which activates on the one hand, kallikreinovuyu system, on the other - mast cells. Because of these changes include additional links, strengthening the mechanism of development and course of inflammation (Fig. 5). Acceleration of the process of destruction of the connective tissue and the accumulation of antigens occur due to the weakening effect of the same steroid hormones and enhance autoimmunity. In addition, these chain reactions activate hormonal and weaken sympathetic link sympathoadrenal system. Read more [...]