The easiest way to hook the compass needle at the tip vertically put needles and wait until it will unfold in the North - South. But in this case it will be very difficult to navigate in a degree reading. Therefore it is desirable to preserve not only the arrow of your waste compass and scale that you can use thread or resin attached to a flat piece of bark or foam. In the center of the ear down makeshift compass should stick a small needle or a sharp, dry fish bone, which put an arrow. The main disadvantage of this compass is that after each use of the arrow have to remove the axle and reliably Read more [...]
I'm sure many own simple devices of the north, south, east and west. Knowing the position of at least one side of the horizon, it is easy to identify and all the others: If one faces north and hands out to the sides, the left point to the west, the right - to the east and south is behind. Determine the side of the horizon can be the compass, the sun, the stars, the natural signs.
Compass. It is best to carry a compass with a mobile vizirkoy, dial with luminous at night and arrow. In order to determine the side of the horizon, omit brake magnetic needle compass and set horizontally. He Read more [...]
Core Earth is too deep for scientists to directly measure its magnetic field. But to draw conclusions about changes in it can be, and by observation of the earth's field at the surface of the planet and in kosmose.Soglasno results of a new analysis of the data, at the core there are areas with rapidly changing magnetic characteristics. According to the Geophysics Institute of Geophysics of Paris (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris) Kull Arnaud (Arnaud Chulliat), the area may be responsible for the removal of the magnetic poles of the northern part of Canada.Northern magnetic Pole pointed Read more [...]
Fog makes it difficult orientation in the mountains in the fog is almost impossible to visually determine the correct length, steepness or height.
Glacier or snow fields in the fog may move the map or sketch, using a compass and altimeter. Movement on the rocks in the fog continues as a landmark or labeling only when you are familiar with the route. In any case, while there is visibility, it is necessary to determine their location and pinpoint the compass (or, respectively, the band apart) the direction of the well-known landmarks. With the loss of the fog, the orientation should stop and Read more [...]
Watch. In the campaign, even if you go in a large group, it is nice to have your own hours. When I was going in his first campaign, pocket watches were not in fashion, young people prefer wrist. With me were only pocket - large, painted medals Brussels watch the beginning of this century. I did not like them, but I still took them in subsequent campaigns. And what is interesting: all watches in the group broke down, and my pocket "alarm clock" worked smoothly. Typically clocks are affected by water: it came under heavy rain, dipped his hand into the river or he completely fell off Read more [...]
Bitter cold, piercing, knocking down the wind, blinding blizzard, many of the obstacles are many difficulties in the campaign, the overcoming of which requires all forces and stamina. In preparation for the transition to focus on fit and protect shoes from moisture, as the legs - the most vulnerable point of the polar traveler. For insulation shoe insoles are commonly used all sorts of felt, felt, hay grass, etc. In the autonomous existence of highly effective protection against moisture shoe booties. This bags or cases of a fabric that is worn over shoes and formed through the airspace retain Read more [...]
Time the sun and compass determined following method.
Measure azimuth on the Sun, for example, that it is 90 °. Sunin the East - 90: 15 (15 - twenty-fourth part of a circle - the value of the rotation of the Earth or the apparent displacement of the sun for 1 hour) = 6, 6 + 1 (Daylight time) = 7; time - 7 hours (Figure 47).
Azimuth is 180 °, the sun in the south - 180: 15 = 12, 12 + 1 = 13 hours.
Azimuth 270 °, Sun in the west - 270 15 = 18 18 + 1 = 19 hours. Read more [...]
It's not hard to lose the orientation of the debris of dead trees in the forest thicket overgrown with thick bushes, where the untrained eye everything seems monotonous green chaos and difficult to distinguish conspicuous terrain and the dissimilarity of the situation. Astray've both beginners and experience tells taezhnikam.
In such cases, people will start trying to mind a variety of ways of orienteering. He recalls how on the countries of the world are building their dwelling ants, and where abundant stands resin on the bark, and which side of the trees are covered with thick moss. Read more [...]
Reduced image of the earth's surface by means of signs is called a plan or map. On the plan represented a small surface area, excluding its curvature. Applied to large areas of the map with the landforms. The spherical surface of the Earth is shown in the map plane with folds and tears. Map differs from the plan carrying a grid of geographical coordinates.
At stake is the image is put in miniature in scale. Distinguish between small-scale maps, medium-and large-scale. In tourism, are different cards: to study the entrances, small-and medium-scale maps for the development of the active Read more [...]
Target areas - means being able to find your location and direction motion with respect to the horizon. Orientation consists of three main steps: a) the identification of areas by landmarks, and b) the definition of the horizon, and c) determining the point of location and direction of travel before reaching the landmark.
Terrain orientation begins by defining the horizon. Side of the horizon are determined by the compass, celestial bodies, local subjects and different features. Identification of local objects only gives approximate results, so use this method recommended in exceptional cases Read more [...]
In practice, the most common tourist compass Hadrian. It consists of a round box, inside of which on the edge of a steel needle placed magnetic arrow. On the inner surface of the box marked degree scale divisions. Kettle closed fortified rotating lid, with a device for viewing-slot and fly. In determining the horizon, measuring and setting aside a compass to orient the corners. For this door should release the brake, to combine the northern end of the arrow with zero limb. In this position, the side of the horizon will be located in the direction corresponding to the initials marked on the Read more [...]
After a careful study on the area map between points the way forward movement must identify yourself in the path is well recognizable, often located on the ground reference points, to draw a map elected route movement, and measuring the true azimuth protractor all sections of track between features translate these into magnetic bearings, and then on the map to determine the length of each segment and recalculate the distance obtained in their steps.
Preparing the route charted the movement and writing angles and distances leave from the start point.
Citing the motion compass needle, guided Read more [...]
Wind rose - A graphical representation of the frequency of different directions (compass points) winds in the area and identify the country of the world is blowing from wind. Rose winds is of great practical importance in dealing with such hygienic tasks as planning of settlements, the device on their territory, hospitals, schools, sports facilities and other facilities, which should be located on the windward side of the various industries, which is likely to pollute the air.
Rose WindsTo produce wind roses lay on the drawing from a central point in the direction of certain segments of different Read more [...]
The essence of the movement by the azimuth is the ability to withstand with a compass direction, and just go for the scheduled item. This method is indispensable for driving on unfamiliar terrain in the mountains, in the woods, in the desert, especially at night and in other low visibility conditions. Especially need these skills in combat troops. Azimuth go to explore and come back from it, is held direction offensive attack to march troops to various locations.
How then prepares the data for the movement in azimuth and what they represent? Training on a data card for traveling on the Read more [...]
To complete the consideration of issues related to orientation, it is necessary to consider another question. In the preceding discussion, we assumed that the direction of the north, as shown on the map and direction to the north, determined with a compass in the field, is one and the same. In reality this is not true, so you need to make the appropriate update. (The essence of the described methods of orientation does not change, they just add one simple computational operations that tourists need to know.) It is a true translation of the magnetic azimuth and back.
We have defined the azimuth Read more [...]
Compass is one of the main instruments for orientation even in the age of the Global Positioning System (GPS). In some places where GPS does not work, such as rain forests, where the forest canopy absorbs the satellite signal, and of course, if the GPS on full of reason fails, the help will experience a compass.For travel country or in the mountains need to understand the basics of the compass. Compass - it is the main instrument for navigation, consisting of a magnetic needle mounted on an axis and immersed in liquid. When the arrow is free to rotate, then the red end points to the magnetic Read more [...]
Planning journey, please be good cards. However, remember that in today's world a detailed map of the conflict region can arouse suspicion. If you are held with a detailed map that designated military facilities, landfills, police stations, you may be under suspicion. Some politically unstable countries better to use a card from the guide than going with a detailed map.Traveling in high risk, do not do notes on maps. Do not use on your route map or parking areas. In the places where they work Service Security, such marks can be interpreted as a bad intention.When you go on an azimuth, Read more [...]
Resection - is an easy way to locate a good degree of accuracy, if you get lost. For example, if you know you are in a certain region, but do not know where it is, this procedure provides a relatively precise location.To do this, see the two noticeable object, which can be identified on a map. Then, orient the map and compass so that tie them to the landmark. Place the card on a flat surface, and then specify your location from the bearing of a distant object noticeable. However, you need a count of the object relative to your position. To do this, turn your countdown to the countdown. When Read more [...]
Compass serves primarily to determine the direction, but the exact orientation is necessary to understand how to use a compass with the map. First, correctly oriented with respect to parts of the world map. North on the map must match the direction of the magnetic pole. Then the information on the map will be linked with the landscape.To do this, we must first determine the direction of the magnetic poles. Remember, it is a 6 "west of the geographic pole. To orient a map, a compass by turning the dial, set it so that strelkaukazatel coincided with the direction of the needle. Place the Read more [...]
We have already mentioned that no description of the terrain can not create in the reader a correct idea of it, which gives a topographic map. That map is a guide surface on roads and no roads, day and night on unfamiliar terrain. Knowledge of and ability to use it it is necessary for all, but especially to travelers, tourists, prospectors, geologists, surveyors, military. We must be able to compare it with the area, but most importantly, to be able to navigate the terrain on the map.
Recall again, but that reference map (aerial photographs) is composed of orientation maps, identifying her Read more [...]