Layer Cake on Mars

A few days ago reported the discovery on Mars of simple organic compounds. But this is not all of the latest news from the Red Planet. The discovery was made by an instrument SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars). The data so far are preliminary and need full verification. According to the project scientist for Mars rover Curiosity John Grottsingera found organic compounds, perchlorates - chlorine, hydrogen, carbon - could, in particular, to get to Mars from meteorites that contain carbon compounds, such as carbonaceous chondrites. If, however, it is proven that organic is native Martian origin, will Read more [...]
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A grade-proof box

A grade-proof boxA grade-proof box Appointment: Protection against organic vapors (benzene and its homologues, gasoline, kerosene, acetone, toluene, xylene, alcohols, ethers, aniline, carbon disulfide, goloidorganicheskie compounds and nitro compounds of benzene and its homologues, tetraethyl lead), chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides.

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A grade-proof box

A grade-proof boxA grade-proof box Appointment: Protection against organic vapors (benzene and its homologues, gasoline, kerosene, acetone, toluene, xylene, alcohols, ethers, aniline, carbon disulfide, goloidorganicheskie compounds and nitro compounds of benzene and its homologues, tetraethyl lead), chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides.

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A grade-proof box

A grade-proof boxA grade-proof box Appointment: Protection against organic vapors (benzene and its homologues, gasoline, kerosene, acetone, toluene, xylene, alcohols, ethers, aniline, carbon disulfide, goloidorganicheskie compounds and nitro compounds of benzene and its homologues, tetraethyl lead), chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides.

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The influence of anthropogenic activities on the biosphere

Man always use the environment mainly as a source of resources, but over time it activities no significant impact on the biosphere. At the end of the last century, under the influence of changes in the biosphere economic activity came to the attention of scientists. By the beginning of XXI century, pollution waste, emissions, waste water of all types of industrial production, agriculture, public utilities, cities have become global, putting humanity on the brink of ecological disaster. According to statistics, by the end of XX century on the planet producing about 100 billion tons of ores, fossil Read more [...]
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A grade-proof box

A grade-proof boxA grade-proof box Appointment: Protection against organic vapors (benzene and its homologues, gasoline, kerosene, acetone, toluene, xylene, alcohols, ethers, aniline, carbon disulfide, goloidorganicheskie compounds and nitro compounds of benzene and its homologues, tetraethyl lead), chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides.

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The influence of anthropogenic activities on the biosphere

Man always use the environment mainly as a source of resources, but over time it activities no significant impact on the biosphere. At the end of the last century, under the influence of changes in the biosphere economic activity came to the attention of scientists. By the beginning of XXI century, pollution waste, emissions, waste water of all types of industrial production, agriculture, public utilities, cities have become global, putting humanity on the brink of ecological disaster. According to statistics, by the end of XX century on the planet producing about 100 billion tons of ores, fossil Read more [...]
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Arsenic compounds

Arsenic compounds - Trioxide, myshyakovistokisly calcium (Calcium arsenite), arsenate calcium (Calcium arsenate) shveynfurtskaya or Paris green, protars. The toxic effect of arsenic is similar. Have strong cumulative properties. Deposited in the liver, kidneys, bones, hair, nails. Acute poisoning in production are very rare, much of it belongs to the household. When injected into the gastro-intestinal tract after 30-40 minutes. there are gastro-intestinal disorders such as severe gastroenteritis: a metallic taste in the mouth, sharp abdominal pain, repeated vomiting, diarrhea choleriform Read more [...]
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Cyanides

Cyanide compounds combine a large class of substances (cyanide hydrogen cyanide metals, cyanogen, cyanogen halogenated esters or tsianmuravinoy tsianugolnoy acids, nitriles, isonitriles, some complex cyanide salts, etc.), the structure of which is a group of CN. The most common of these is a compound of hydrogen cyanide - HCN (colorless easily mobile liquid with a smell of bitter almonds). Cyanide compounds are used in electroplating in coating metal copper, brass, gold and silver, used in liquid carburizing and hardening of metals. In agriculture, cyanide is used to control pests of fruit trees Read more [...]
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Chromium as an industrial poison

Chrome used in the production of chromium salts (monochromatic, dichromate, chromic anhydride, etc.), and chromium metal smelting of high quality steel, alloys, chromium metal, production of fungicides, catalysts, as well as fireworks, leather, textile, wood and other industries. In a production environment chromium enters the body primarily through the respiratory tract, as well as the gastrointestinal tract, skin and mucous membranes. The toxicity of chromium compounds depends on their chemical composition, structure, and physical condition. The most toxic hexavalent chromium compounds, and Read more [...]
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Chrome

Chromium (Chromium, Cr) - a chemical element in Group VI of the Periodic System, serial number 24, atomic weight (mass) 51.9. Solid white lustrous metal, t ° melting 1890 °, t ° Boiling 2480 °, density 7.16. It is used in the steel industry for high quality steels. Chromium compounds (oxides and salts of chromic acid) are used in the leather industry for chromium electroplating products, in the manufacture of paints, stains, grain, as in agriculture. Chromium compounds enter the body through the respiratory tract, mucous membranes and intact skin. The most toxic compounds of hexavalent chromium Read more [...]
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Fluorine

Fluoride (as an industrial poison), F, - an element of Group VII of the Periodic Table of Mendeleev, the serial number 9, atomic weight (mass) of 18.9984. Slightly yellow gas with a sharp, irritating odor; t ° boiling -188,1 °, t ° melting -219,6 °. Combines with hydrogen to the explosion. Fluorine - A strong oxidizing agent that reacts with many substances, decomposes water to form HF. Workplace air pollution and atmosphere possible in the processing of apatite and phosphorite in the production of fertilizers and Insectofungicides, fluoro-organic compounds (including plastics), phosphorus, Read more [...]
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Organophosphates

Organophosphorus compounds - substances whose molecules have phosphorus-carbon bond, ie, the phosphorus atom is directly attached to a carbon atom (in contrast to other products containing phosphorus and carbon compounds, such as phosphates, where the relation between C and P via oxygen) . To organophosphorus compounds are derivatives of hydrogen phosphide (RH3) - phosphine. Primary and secondary phosphines are chemically unstable and liable to catch fire. Phosphines - strong poisons. Acute toxicity and exceptionally high biological activity organophosphorus compounds form the basis of using Read more [...]
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Fluorosis

Fluorosis (Synonym Cryolite disease) - a chronic disease bone that develops with prolonged excessive intake of fluorine and its compounds. The cause of dental fluorosis may be elevated fluoride in drinking water, the consumption of food contaminated with fluoride, inhalation of dust containing fluorine and its compounds. Disease detected mainly in people a long time working with fluorides (see Fluorine). Once in the stomach, fluoride dissolved gastric juices are absorbed and enter the blood. Then salt of hydrofluoric acid circulating in the blood begin to be delayed in the skeleton and teeth. Read more [...]
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Phenolic compounds structure and properties

Discovery of vitamin P has attracted the attention of scientists - biochemists and pharmacologists, physiologists, plant and animal, and then the chemists - to the phenolic compounds, this would seem to bury known and unremarkable components of plant tissues. More than 100 years ago in the physiology and biochemistry of plants rooted idea that phenolic compounds - are the end products of metabolism, a kind of "waste" plant organism, so do not pose any interest. Well, for such a conclusion had some factual basis. The fact that higher plants, unlike animals do not have an effective system Read more [...]
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Phenolic hydroxyl groups and antioxidant activity

Due to the presence of hydroxyl groups and the characteristics of the electronic structure of the benzene ring phenols have the properties of weak acids. The most important are the oxidation reaction. Propensity to light recoil electron embedded in the structure of the benzene ring, is undergoing some changes with the introduction of the ring one or more hydroxyl groups. The ability to reversibly oxidized to quinones, through the intermediate formation of semiquinone radical (see above), is characteristic not all phenolic compounds. When the location of a number of hydroxyl groups (ortho-position) Read more [...]
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Phenol plant in animals and man-2

Thus, completely consumed in the human body and animals, not all of phenols, arrived with food, and a more or less prominent part. The fate of phenols depends strongly on the mode of administration in animal organism. When you receive through the mouth with the food, they are, as already described above, are exposed to oxidizing and digestive enzymes, partially hydrolyzed and oxidized. With the introduction of phenols, bypassing the digestive tract (eg, subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously), the impact of these stages fall. The result is fully oxidized substantially less phenol Read more [...]
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Phenol plant in animals and man-1

4. Another way of inactivation of phenolic compounds used animal organism - is methylation of the hydroxyl groups: - OH> O-CH3. Methylated usually one of two or three neighboring gidrokenlov, and that changes in the structure enough to phenol lost most of its biological activity. Methylation of the hydroxyl group - is the main way of inactivation of phenolic compounds of the animal organism - adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine (pirokatehinaminov). Phenol methylation reaction proceeds with participation transferases. Transferase (from the Latin fero - move) - this is a group of enzymes that Read more [...]
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Phenol plant in animals and humans

Almost every vegetable products used for human consumption, has a more or less significant amounts of phenolic compounds. In particular, this applies to fruits and vegetables. Vegetables in most cases are pre-mechanical (washing, cleaning, peeling, grinding) and heat (cooking) process. Those herbal products that are used for human food in natural form (fruit, berries, some vegetables), also crushed, chew, moistened with saliva in the mouth, and only after proper digestion begins. This kind of processing plant foods leads to the destruction of tissue and cellular barriers. This facilitates access Read more [...]
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Phenols of malignant disease-3

The experiments showed that the carcinogenicity of phenolic compounds increases with the number of methoxy groups - O-CH3 in their composition. It was also found that the introduction into the body, bypassing the digestive tract (subcutaneous, intraperitoneal), medical tannin or tannic complexes of various plants causing severe toxic liver injury until it is acute yellow atrophy, and in the future - the development of liver cancer. All of these carcinogens are also, apparently, undergo metabolic activation in the body to form a more active intermediate and ultimate carcinogens as a result of Read more [...]
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