Researchers have tried to determine the anatomical differences of the brain of the great physicist, based on a new, previously unavailable material that has recently been in their hands.If you ask, "Which one of you geniuses can call?" That Albert Einstein, to be sure, will be in the top ten, or even five, or even three. While his place in the public mind a great scientist must rather famous photograph than a subtle understanding of the theory of relativity. However, scientific and - increasingly - the cultural significance of his work can hardly be overestimated. And then another Read more [...]
Emotions are formed on the basis of physiological processes in the brain and in the body as a whole. Numerous clinical and experimental observations indicate that the most clear violation of the emotional sphere are observed in lesions of the subcortical brain structures. Particularly important in this respect the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Experiments using chronically implanted electrodes in the subcortical structures [Hess (W. W. Hess), and others] have shown that stimulation of various parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus can cause all forms of emotional reactions.
However, the concept Read more [...]
Due to the fact that the external environment surrounding the person is unstable, the analyzer always have to adapt to different conditions, constantly rearrange their work. Change in the physiological condition of one analyzer inevitably leads to certain changes in the status of other analyzers. Sound stimuli are changing, for example, the sensitivity of the visual analyzer, and the taste - the sensitivity of the auditory and tactile, etc. Thus, all the analyzers are closely related to each other, ie, there is their interaction, as well as the center of all pass through the analyzer the higher Read more [...]
Many, perhaps, believe that in time sleep all the cells of the nervous system a rest. How, then, is managed by the authorities, who continue their work and sleep? It appears that in time Sleep many cells of the nervous system in a state of a certain activity. These nerve cells control the administration of life-critical physiological processes: circulation, respiration, allocation, etc. However, these "vechnotrudyaschiesya" cells relative to rest. Their vacation is because of constant cycles of excitation and inhibition in the cortex.
Pavlov figuratively spoke of the "mosaic" Read more [...]
Now, having become acquainted with the dynamics of the basic physiological processes occurring in the nervous system, let's apply our knowledge to explain some seemingly not quite clear facts discussed above. Make an attempt to understand the inner workings of those who caused the rise in health experience Sechenov.
Sechenov, as the reader will recall, raise efficiency tired right hand, actively working (during a brief rest) of the left hand.
To explain these facts, let us recall that in the past century, scientists have found, that certain parts of the cerebral cortex, separate gyrus are Read more [...]
Gipernefroidny cancer (Synonyms - clear-cell carcinoma, a tumor Gravitsa) develops from epithelial cells of the renal parenchyma. Tumors are of different sizes, round or nodular form in the early stages are surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule, which separates them from the healthy part of the kidney. They are located in different parts of the kidney, pushing and squeezing the renal parenchyma. Gradually growing, cancerous tumor can reach the size of an adult's head. Consistency gipernefroidnogo cancer uneven: it is dense, it is soft, some necrotic areas may be calcification. On a section Read more [...]
Hemispheric white matter consists of nerve fibers that connect different parts of the cerebral cortex with each other and with the departments that are under bark - subcortex.
Bark cerebral hemispheres of the human brain is a highly organized part of the central nervous system. In the cortex, is many times more nerve cells (in humans up to 14 billion) than in other parts of the central nervous system. Processes of these cells, elongated, would have amounted to several thousand kilometers. Cells in the cortex have different shape and size. Thus, the bark - The highest part of the central nervous Read more [...]
Numerous works of Pavlov and his students proved that all psychological activity, and the emergence and consolidation of conditioned reflexes are a single nervous process, encompassing the two opposite, but always linked processes.
When the body is responsible response to external stimulation, when it is the excitation of nerve tissue. Braking, on the contrary, as it restricts or cuts off the reaction, stopping excitement. If there was no braking, the excitement would spread throughout the nervous tissue, and then began to excitement, danger to health and even life. Equilibration with the environment Read more [...]
In this matter, Bekhterev has a clear materialist position and started from the analysis of the possible causes of dreams.
In Orbeli (1938) is the following statement: "We know - he writes - that normal physiological sleep, as well as a hypnotic dream, represents a partial inhibition of the cortex. A person or animal sleeps all signs quite deep well, and at the same cortical activity is not completely excluded. Take Pasha dreams. After all, we see a distinct and clear pictures, experience a range of subjective sensations, very difficult, but strangely located, we experience them quite clearly, Read more [...]
This fact corresponds to the known psychological law regression of memory Ribot: aging weakens memory for recent events and better preserved memory for old events associated with the impressions of childhood and youth. The physiological basis of this is to reduce the reactivity of the cerebral cortex in aging, as evidenced by the experience of several employees of Pavlov. Consequently, the recent signs of nerve as less stable, easier to decelerate during irradiation sleep inhibition. Then appears on the scene early, stronger cortical temporal relationships. In addition, there is also value Read more [...]
Most easily developed in dogs sleep in thermal effects as high (about 45 °), and low (around 0 °) temperature. In these experiments, the dream becomes literally a barrier to the study of higher nervous activity in animals, because they have all worked out before reflexes inhibited.
Summarizing the many observations of the development of sleep in experimental dogs, Pavlov came to bring out that natural sleep begins with the appearance of inhibition in the cortex brain, which then descends to the subcortical structures that regulate the function of internal organs and body systems. This theory Read more [...]
Contrary to the theory of cortical she and some clinical observations of the existence of anencephaly - people born with immature cerebral cortex. According to this theory, they would have all the time to sleep and to sleep, and yet, and they have the periodic alternation of sleep and wakefulness.
Finally, in relatively recent times by recording the electrical activity of individual cells of the cerebral cortex was found that during sleep in an inhibited state is only about half of the cells, while the second half of their - "awake."
Trying to resolve the contradictions in the views Read more [...]
Surdomutizm - functional hearing and speech impaired. Surdomutizm temporary. At the core of the process lies surdomutizma protective inhibition in the cortex at the superstrong stimuli (shot blast wave, trauma). Surdomutizma phenomenon usually pass quickly under the influence of releasing (psychotherapeutic) treatment, sometimes without treatment. Sometimes surdomutizm a protracted and requires intervention neuropsychiatrist and ENT and speech therapy and surdopedagogs.
Surdomutizm occurs in patients with damage to the tympanic membrane, but is 2.5 times less than in the entire membrane. Deafness Read more [...]
Pavlov found that during deep sleep inhibition covers not only the cerebral cortex but also subcortical areas. Therefore, dreams are usually not the case, therefore irritation that almost not perceived or treated poorly. If a person has a dream deep, then brain brake is not fully covered. Hence all sorts of random stimulation of the external and internal world can be perceived by the individual centers of the cerebral cortex that are not covered by the brake.
Here is an example: man shallow sleep, and the street noise was several cars. The consciousness of a person is disabled, but because Read more [...]
Sometimes there are superstitious people who believe in the so-called "prophetic dreams."
Had a man bread and clean water - in the morning, he said that the day he will be successful. He had a dead man - and in the morning it all went down the drain, and the mood and actions.
Let us on this issue will deal with in terms of physiological exercises.
Why do I sometimes dream about the most bizarre person dreams?
Recall the great work of the great democrat Chernyshevsky "What to do?" And especially "The first dream Vera." "I dreamed it, it's locked in a damp Read more [...]
Sensitive part of the pulses coming from the genital organs, forms the spinal reflex arc that operates automatically. Remaining sensitive impulses are sent to higher centers. Spinal centers of erection and ejaculation are less differentiated than the higher centers, so they function according to the type of spinal automatism and often subjected to functional disorders.
The mechanism of the nervous regulation sexual function based on a system of the above centers in order of subordination of the different levels of the central nervous system. The strength and intensity of sexual desire, erection, Read more [...]
Emergence sexual dominance, the rise of sexual tension between high youth sexuality make some more sensitive parts of the cortex brain, related to the sexual sphere. This facilitates and promotes sexual function of individual complexes.
Thus, in the period of puberty in humans is produced and exists in the need for further biological cortical sexual complexes, which in the form of "reflex fields" (by Bykov) then remain for life, being one of the main factors for sexual adjustment of the human psyche, the normal operation of the subcortical structures (the hypothalamus) and spinal centers Read more [...]
It turns hypnosis, like a dream, is a protective inhibition of the brain and, therefore, is a means of relaxation.
If before hypnosis was considered a mysterious phenomenon and charlatans have used hypnosis as a means of profit and frightening to them, to now the great discovery of the physiological school of Pavlov dispelled the fog of mysticism and superstition, and scientific explanation of what hypnosis.
For the first time in Russia, widely for the treatment method was used hypnosis Academician VM Bekhterev. Since that time, hypnosis won a place among the other effective methods of medicine Read more [...]
The study of brain activity in our time are busy not only psychologists or doctors, but also engineers, physicists, mathematicians, and representatives of other sciences. This led to a creative collaboration of specialists in different areas of their scientific investigations aimed at understanding the complex mechanisms of brain activity underlying the human mental function.
One of the manifestations of an activity of the brain are electrical processes that accompany the activity of brain structures, and even the individual components of their cells - neurons. Therefore, progress in understanding Read more [...]