Acute life-threatening situation arose characterized by sudden and often short duration of psychogenic effects. In such embodiments, natural disasters or disasters usually have different physical phenomena (hum, ground motion, the destruction of buildings, etc.) that can instantly assess the situation as life threatening. Destruction, loss of life, massive trauma exacerbate pathogenic to humans immediate threat to life.
Behavior in acute life-threatening situation suddenly developed largely determined by the emotion of fear, which to some extent can be considered physiologically normal and adaptive Read more [...]
The man who got into a situation where he is alone in the forest, there may be not only physical problems (such as hunger, or illness), but also the problems of moral and mental.
One such problem is the loneliness.
Man alone is more difficult to make major camp fire camp, harder tread the path in the snow, obtain food products. In general unrealizable if there is no special equipment and equipment to do a good insurance when going through a difficult terrain.
If a person is in an emergency situation alone, as it is much more susceptible to psychological disorders and emotional distress. Read more [...]
Electrical accident most often the result of an accident or injury. Suicide or murder by electric shocks are rare. The most reliable sign of the electric current on the human body are elektrometki which are formed at the contact of the human body with the current-carrying object, and they are often located on the hands (so they must be very carefully inspected) and in the current output, usually in the feet, the soles are also observed damage shoes. Elektrometki may be in the form of scratches, bubbles, burns metallized fabrics current-carrying metal object. In the absence of elektrometok (which, Read more [...]
Epidemic (lethargic) Encephalitis (synonym: encephalitis A encephalitis Economy Class). Clinical manifestations of epidemic (lethargic) encephalitis varied. Temperature is more often subfebrile, rarely above 38 °. The fever lasts from a few days to 2-3 weeks. In the acute period, there was a moderate leukocytosis, mainly due polinuklearov, relative lymphopenia, eosinophilia. Cerebral symptoms are mild. Often it is a small headache and sometimes vomiting, heart rate may be a little slow in relation to body temperature. The most characteristic symptoms include sleep disorders: an irresistible Read more [...]
Epileptic stupor often develops in epileptic psychoses such as clouded state, epileptic Oneyroid, deeper forms of dysphoria, and after large seizures. Much less celebrated its spontaneous occurrence. Movement disorders in stupor have different depths - from mild speech and motor inhibition, from which a patient can take conventional forms of verbal treatment, to total immobility with mutism, echolalia, perseveration, negativism and waxy flexibility. Confusion usually reaches high degrees, such as stupor with astonishment, and can turn into states of speech-motor excitation with impulsive aggression. Read more [...]
Epileptic disorders of mood (dysphoria) - the most common form of mental disorder, which can be found in every case of epilepsy. Characterized by the appearance dysphoria without provocation. Depressed mood state predominate in frequency over the state of elevated mood.
In some cases, there are melancholy, accompanied by pain in the chest, anxiety or irrational fear, combined with malice, suspicion, tension and willingness to destructive action. Patients in these states often complain of painful thoughts, which will not be rid of, most often of the suicide or murder of loved ones. Other patients Read more [...]
Epileptic special states - Company of mental disorders, grouped by such features as a short-term (a few seconds and minutes to several hours), the frequent occurrence of mild stupefaction with allopsihicheskoy disorientation, while the identity of patients remains maloizmenennym or unchanged, the lack of complete amnesia. Epileptic special states with constancy marked affective disorders - anxiety, fear, increased the ecstatic mood, as well as disorders of perception of time, space, fiber-vestibular disorders. The special conditions include various forms of aura, dreamlike state-derealizatsionnye Read more [...]
Arsenic compounds - Trioxide, myshyakovistokisly calcium (Calcium arsenite), arsenate calcium (Calcium arsenate) shveynfurtskaya or Paris green, protars. The toxic effect of arsenic is similar. Have strong cumulative properties. Deposited in the liver, kidneys, bones, hair, nails.
Acute poisoning in production are very rare, much of it belongs to the household. When injected into the gastro-intestinal tract after 30-40 minutes. there are gastro-intestinal disorders such as severe gastroenteritis: a metallic taste in the mouth, sharp abdominal pain, repeated vomiting, diarrhea choleriform Read more [...]
Organic mercury compounds - Granosan merkuran, highly toxic, are mainly neurotropic poisons.
Acute and subacute toxicity characterized by metallic taste in the mouth, gingivitis, stomatitis, increased salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sometimes with blood, general weakness, fainting. The most severe the subacute toxicity in household poisonings due to the consumption of pickled corn, sunflower seeds, etc. Then, in addition to gastrointestinal events, there are marked disorders of the nervous system: insomnia, dizziness, trembling limbs, staggering gait, speech disorders, Read more [...]
Cervicothoracic radiculitis (funiculitis) occurs much less frequently than the lumbosacral. Etiological moments are the same. Shock are usually roots CVI-VIII) rarely ThI; lesions of the upper cervical roots are rare. Disease in most cases is one-sided, starts with pain in the neck radiating to the distribution area corresponding roots. Pain sometimes preceded by numbness in the same areas. Sometimes pain spread to the occipital and chest area, going so spread beyond the affected nerve roots. Pain points - vertebral and paravertebral. Cervical lordosis often smoothed, limited mobility of Read more [...]
Shock - a severe symptom of circulatory, respiratory, metabolic and endocrine functions, caused disorder neurohumoral regulation of vital processes in life-threatening conditions.
Stimuli that cause shock, may be exogenous (pain from mechanical, thermal injury, the effect of toxins, etc.) and endogenous (pain in myocardial infarction, perforated ulcer, in the formation of toxic products in the body, etc.).
Classification (etiological basis)
I. Painful shock1) exogenous painful shock (traumatic)
a) for mechanical damage;
b) for thermal and chemical burns, and c) when frostbite d) for electrical Read more [...]
Saint Martin's evil - Addicted to alcohol, a type of drug (see). Arises from the abuse of alcohol and is characterized by change the body's reaction to the introduction of alcohol, resulting in the loss of self-control (difficult to overcome the desire to receive significant amounts of alcohol in addition to the initial dose) in the development of alcohol withdrawal (withdrawal) syndrome by minovanii intoxication, changing tolerance alcohol, which initially increases and subsequently decreases markedly. Consequence of chronic alcoholism are personality changes and, as a rule, social decline, Read more [...]
Saint Martin's evil develops gradually, imperceptibly, and the drinker and for a long time regarded them only as a habit, not a disease. One of the early symptoms of alcoholism is the disappearance of vomiting in patients with severe intoxication, which allows use of more and more liquor. At the same time there is the so-called loss of self-control - when used at the beginning of a small amount of alcohol (100-200 g) there is a formidable desire to drink more and more. With the development of alcoholism (alcoholism) drink more and more often, with random individuals or alone, the character Read more [...]
Phentolamine (Phentolaminum; synonym Regitine; List B) - adrenolytic agent. Apply with peripheral circulatory disorders (Raynaud's disease, occlusive disease, acrocyanosis), in the treatment of venous ulcer, bedsores, frostbite, for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and time removal of the tumor. Assign phentolamine inside of 0.05 g intramuscularly and intravenously in 1 ml of 0.5% solution (water solution are ex tempore). Side effects of phentolamine include dizziness, tachycardia, flushing and itching of the skin, swelling of the mucous membranes, dyspeptic disorders, orthostatic collapse Read more [...]
Often, a significant hearing loss occurs when trauma without skull fracture, it happens more often in severe injury, followed by a more or less prolonged loss of consciousness. With minor injury without loss of consciousness hearing gives a slight decrease and, moreover, in a few patients.
As the experimental histological Brunner, in the pathogenesis of cochlear-vestibular disorders is important concussion (concussion and a maze). As a result of shaking changes occur in the vascular system of the inner ear, which are due to functional lesions vasomotor center and called them paresis vasoconstrictors Read more [...]
Of course, of great importance general neurological symptoms. Conduct research of cochlear and vestibular function was part of a comprehensive in-depth study, which involved hygienists, clinicians, electrophysiologists, biochemists (A. Volkov, AG Genkin, B. Lukyanov, A. Melkumova, GI . Rumyantsev, P. Spielberg, LB Yushkevich, etc.).
Neurological research AS Melkumova found in some workers exposed prolonged contact with the general vibration symptoms of organic lesions of the central nervous system - the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord department (Rossolimo pathological Read more [...]
Tetany - Symptom, occurring in the form of seizures and are accompanied by disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Etiology and pathogenesis. Tetany may occur in the gastro-intestinal diseases (pyloric stenosis, pancreatitis, colitis, dysentery) in acute infectious diseases (eg, tetanus) and intoxication, some endocrine disorders (hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, etc.), the abrupt hyperventilation (eg, in hysteria or encephalitis), and after serious operations, in women during pregnancy and lactation, in children suffering from rickets, etc. There are cases of idiopathic Read more [...]
Twilight obscuration consciousness is the most common pathologies of consciousness expressed in epilepsy. His disorientation to determine time, place, surroundings and the self (the so-called simple form clouded state), abnormal behavior, in some cases, in addition, there are various, often hallucinatory-delusional and affective, productive disorder.
Simple form clouded state usually occurs acutely. With her perception of the missing during the episode does not depend on external stimuli. Movement disorders are scattered automated movement, but can be stored externally targeted action, such Read more [...]
The major causes of disease and damage to the nervous system, are trauma, infection, poisoning, disease stimuli, circulatory disorders (organic and functional), tumor and edema, dysfunction of the endocrine glands and metabolism, abnormalities associated with age and sex characteristics. In the occurrence of diseases plays a significant role fatigue and negative emotions.
One of the manifestations of diseases and injuries of the nervous system may be movement disorders. Complete loss of motor function is called paralysis, and partial loss of movement (reducing their strength and size) - paresis. Read more [...]
One important function of the eye is color perception - The ability to distinguish colors. Person is able to take about 180 color tones, and with the brightness and saturation - more than 13 thousand. This is due to the mixing in various combinations of red, green and blue. A person with the right sense of all three colors are normal trichromats. If there are two or one component is observed tsvetoanomaliya. The lack of perception called protanomaliey red, green - and blue deuteranomalopia - tritanomaliey.
There are congenital and acquired disorders of color vision. Congenital disorder called Read more [...]