Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. The practical significance

According to different authors (Orlov, 1929 Sludsky, 1938 Argiropulo Vinogradov, 1941) and our observations, yellow gopher in some regions of Kazakhstan serves as a pest of crops. It hurts wheat, rye, barley, of melons: watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes harm young shoots, kills nursery of fruit and ornamental trees, damaging alfalfa, sunflower sprouts. DN Kashka rovym and L. Lane Sokolova (1927) were cases destroying gopher grape nurseries where animal damage inflicted on the young shoots of 80-100%. BS Vinogradov (1936) believes that in the conditions of Uzbekistan yellow gopher in many cases, Read more [...]
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Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. The daily life of the seasonal

Behavior. In early spring, in the first days after leaving normal after hibernation, ground squirrels most of life in the warmest time of the day. During this period, the most active are the males in connection with the rut. In late spring, during the birth and feeding young, young out to the surface and intense zhironakopleniya adult males, gophers Vital activity from morning to evening. At this time, males, lactating females and young are very active, a pregnant female, on the contrary, very careful. In early summer, during the settlement of young and hibernation adults profit Vital activity Read more [...]
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Large, reddish or gopher — citellus major pallas. Nutrition and how to quench thirst

The diet of the gopher precedence are two groups of food: green aerial parts of the plant - leaves, stems (with a high content of fiber) and concentrated food - seeds, fruits, flowers as steppe and cultivated plants. Along with the plants eaten by animals and animal feed, mainly insects: ants, leaf beetles, etc., but in their last diet did not play the same role as the vegetative parts of plants and seeds, usually in the stomach of these rodents are found the remains of no more than one to three insects. Depending on the season and on the biotope in which live squirrels, the ratio of food Read more [...]
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Cheeked ground squirrel — citellus erythrogenys brandt. Enemies

Infectious diseases. Epizootic and epidemiological significance. Diseases of the gopher is not studied. Epizootic significance red-squirrel is not clear. Parasites and diseases caused by them. Pas razitofauna this gopher is not studied. In the literature, there are indications of a general nature that the main enemy of the squirrel are polecat, Fox and Korsak, of raptors - various eagles, kites and harriers. Young squirrels can destroy crows and gulls (Belyaev, 1955, Tolebaev, 1958). In the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia and north-east of Kazakhstan remains of red-cheeked Read more [...]
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Clawed ground squirrel — spermophilopsis leptodactylus lichtenstein. Changes in the number

Number clawed ground squirrels are more or less stable and relatively high. Lower it strength Kazakhstan can be explained, first of all, the habitat on the periphery of the area, especially for the population of Muyun-godmother and Southern Balkhash, where sandy tracts are less developed. The population density of animals in Kyzyl Kum and Karakum much higher. Stable character clawed ground squirrel population can be linked to the features of its habitat and species status in the biocenosis. Animals are adapted to living alone in the desert. Only in a relatively small area of the range of their Read more [...]
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Average gopher — citellus intermedius brandt. Infectious diseases

Epizootologicheskoei epidemiological significance. Within the Kazakh part of the area median gopher acts as a carrier of several diseases - tularemia, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis (Galouzeau and Rementsova, 1959). Abjection tularemia from the body indicates the presence of gophers in Kazakhstan steppe and desert-names foci of tularemia in which the specified rodent mites and desert Rhipicephalus ritSho and Rh. schulzei are the main carriers and transmitters of infection. This gopher was keeper of Leptospira in southern Kazakhstan. In the semi-arid zone of a selected Read more [...]
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Average gopher — citellus intermedius brandt

Synonyms: Spermophilus brevicauda, Spermophilus intermedius. Kazakh name: sarshynak. In Pushnikov: common ground squirrel. Notes on taxonomy. The systematic position of the mean, or blednohvostogo gopher can not be considered definitely established. In 1843, FF Brandt almost simultaneously described two species of ground squirrels: Citellus brevicauda - From the Zaisan basin and S. intermedius - A copy of which were taken in the vicinity of Lake. Balkhash. In the future, due to the lack of mass collection of materials on ground squirrels Balkhash and related sites enters Read more [...]
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Relict gopher — citellus relictus kaschkarov

Synonyms: Spermophilus brevicauda, Citellus musicus relictus. Russian book title: Talas gopher, gopher Tien Shan. In Pushnikov: common ground squirrel. Notes on taxonomy. Systematic relationship relic gopher with other long time remained insufficiently understood. Kashkarov DN (1923), originally described as a gopher relic as a subspecies of small, calling it S. pygmaeus relictus, and only after a comparative study identified a separate species - C. relictus (Kashkarov, 1925). The same conclusion was arrived and SI Obolensky (1927). Under this name already this gopher is listed in all Read more [...]
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Large, reddish or gopher — citellus major pallas

Synonyms: Spermophilus rufescens, Arctomys rufescens, Citellus rufescens. Kazakh name: balpak. Russian local, name: Meadow gopher. In Pushnikov: common ground squirrel. Notes on taxonomy. Reddish gopher in its morphology is well-differentiated species. From close to him red-squirrel it has large size smaller zygomatic width, reduced first upper premolars, narrower brain capsule, relatively shorter dentition, small orbits. In red-squirrel "cap" on the head fainter, and her cheeks are white. Reddish gopher has a very low intraspecific variability. Give a description Read more [...]
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Yellow gopher, gopher or sandstone

Status. The small species with relatively stable habitat and relatively stable numbers. Distribution. The range is extensive and covers the Central Plains, Central and South Asia, Kazakhstan, and lives in the North Caspian. In the Saratov region in the Volga distributed through whose territory the border north-western part of the range. Early in the last century along the left bank. Volga reached the latitude of Wolski (Orlov, 1929). Later, the border area has moved considerably to the south, already in the 1950s. AS Stroganov (1954) did not celebrate this kind of north p. Eruslan. Studies Read more [...]
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Large, reddish or gopher — citellus major pallas. Distribution and abundance in Kazakhstan

By AM Belyaev (1955), VS Bazhanov (1948a) and our data, the southern border of the area of the squirrel goes as follows: from the western edge of the republic on p. Derkul to Uralsk and then goes down to 30-50 km on the right bank of the river. Ural (village Balagan, Puzatkin hamlet in the upper river. Kushum) and on the left bank of the floodplain of the Urals falls to 100 km south of Uralsk (central homestead Chapayevskiy farm), then goes even further south (Karatube, Kzyltu, Makat area Guriev region - 47 ° 30'' s. sh.). Hence the border turns to the north, to the sandy tracts Biyryuk Read more [...]
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Yellow ground squirrel or gopher-sandstone — citellus fulvus lichtenstein. Habitat

Colonial and settlement types. Settlement yellow gopher have more or less distinct colonial character. Group allocation norms particularly evident in the early release of animals from hibernation until the so-called intermediate holes, most of them temporary shelters summer gophers. Dissemination of animals within the area is not solid, but in the form of separate arrays, between which there are uninhabited spaces - large tracts of sand (Muyunkum, Kyzylkum), gravelly-clay watershed (central areas Ustiurt Betpak Dala) and at the same time, it is suitable for dwelling squirrels habitats. Read more [...]
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Clawed ground squirrel — spermophilopsis leptodactylus lichtenstein. Homes and temporary shelters

. Clawed ground squirrels live in burrows with one stroke, deprived of underground connections, like other ground squirrels. However, taking the slopes of the dunes described seekers are often located in separate groups (from 5-15), reminiscent of the settlement of marmots in the highlands. In Taukum developed krupnobugristye sands, and at the appropriate slope of sand hills there is a group of holes, boundaries are mezhbarhannye slide covered sagebrush-Sole-sound vegetation. Number of burrows in settlements varies, reaching 30-40. Often there are homes, sometimes without any system located. Read more [...]
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