Prior to approving campaign to assign responsibilities in the group. Head group - the main figure on it the responsibility in preparation for the trip, in the campaign and after. A special responsibility is placed on the head of a group of children. Head of School campaign can be a teacher, an educator, a senior Pioneer leader, past instructor training. The groups are planning trips to the rugged terrain with overnight should be assistant head. Assistants can be teachers, tutors, Pioneer, high school students. Head group of students assigned to the school principal or the head of the institution Read more [...]
Clothing and equipment for the campaign are selected according to the type of tourism and the difficulty of the route. Basic requirements for the clothing and equipment - ease, durability, ease of use.
Equipment for a campaign with one or two nights in the field (weekend trips). Personal equipment: hat, cowboy shirt, storm jacket, trousers of the "Texas" cloak, pants, shirt or T-shirt, two pairs of socks, shoes with removable insole or shoes with molded sole, backpack (possible one for 2-3 people ), blanket or sleeping bag, air mattress, toilet, bowl, cup, spoon, knife, matches. Depending Read more [...]
Halts to choose a location that is protected from wind, no wind - the pass on the slope discontinuity. If the group moves on loose deep snow and laying trails takes time and considerable amount of energy, you can relax, without stopping: part of paving the ski trail, and the other continues to travel with a small, 1-2 km / h, the speed or resting. No need to maintain strict intervals of movement and rest, with good slip and tail wind. Stop to rest in such a case, the decision of the head of the group. He must see and feel the state of the group.
At rest should not sit on the snow. It is better Read more [...]
Selecting the area and campaign themes. The first trip should take place in their area. They do not require the high cost of transportation and the time on the way to the starting point of the route. After hiking on trails near interesting to learn about other parts of the country. Campaign objectives can be different, depending on the composition of the group of interest. Some were interested in the historical past of the area, cultural monuments, others - little explored places third - hunting and fishing. But all share a desire to pass another, more complex route, get physical training, Read more [...]
Group tourists, skiers moved in a convoy of one every 5 - 6 m on the plain, and on the slopes of the interval 10-15 m A Guide goes or director, or a well-prepared traveler. Closes the group one of the strongest.
If you have to run the ski runs, the organization of movement changes. Going forward paves the ski runs for a few minutes, and then a step to the side, skips past a group, except for the closing, and is attached to the rear. Thus, in laying trails involved the whole group.
Place the head determined by the circumstances. It can be a guide, it may be in the middle or at the end of the Read more [...]
One-day and two-day trips - A form of academic work section, means of propaganda to attract tourism to the regular classes and training for long-distance travel. One-day and two-day trips are available to any healthy person. In these campaigns get the hang of camp life, marching by training.
For the success of the campaign to define its tasks, the group that address the issues of equipment, depending on the number of participants. It is necessary to have a map area to make it to determine the length of sections of the selected route. After studying the map of the terrain, it is necessary to Read more [...]
To participate in tourist trips to the homeland allowed bodied students of classes IV-X. In campaigns can participate pioneer groups, links, different classes, different local history circles, as well as the combined group with a homogeneous composition of participants by age and physical fitness. In a multi-day hike in the group can not exceed 15 man. If a multi-day campaign Pioneer detachment sent or class members to divide into groups.
In physical education teams thought about the campaign in a given area occurs in one or two or a group of experienced hikers. They set out their intentions Read more [...]
Mastery of the bivouac of work has a special place in the preparation of the tourist. Here is why. During the day, tourists are distributed like this: 8:00 go eight hours of sleep eight hours of bivouac. The first two terms are the irreducible value. So, all the fun that a tourist wants to implement in the campaign (survey monuments, performing community service jobs, picking berries and swimming, the ability to talk and songs around the campfire, etc.), it must do by reducing the time bivouac works . Unfortunately, very often young tourists, especially traveling in large groups, are bivouac Read more [...]
In one of the first experiments on 50 Wistar rats weighing 100-110 g compared the effect of sucrose and brown sugar in a physiological (2 g / kg) and, as it seemed to us in obviously higher (15 g / kg) doses. Sugar injected with a probe into the stomach of male rats daily for 3 months. Control rats were injected with an equal volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution. Prior to the experiments, and then a month later blood samples were taken from the tail vein. Observations of the appearance, behavior, and periodic weighing of the rats did not show any differences between the three groups Read more [...]
Lifting techniques from the crack of the victim, the ability to move independently, are shown in Fig. 38, a, b, c.
In the fall of a partner in a crack, you must first fix the rope and organize reliable insurance lifeguards. When the snow is deep attachment to an ice-ax is not enough, additional fastening means in the form of snow shovels, snow anchors (eg, dig in and trample down the backpack.) Only reliably securing the rope, you can go to the edge of the crack and start organizing recovery.
Is very important to the system linking the motion of the glacier. The rope is divided Read more [...]
Establishment of regional origin of hair may have value as an independent, and must be a preliminary stage of the study during the examination of similarity of hair (compared with each hair from the same areas of the body). In establishing the regional origin of hair using a set of features peculiar to certain parts of the body hair. This takes into account the length of the hair, the shape and thickness, cross-sectional shape, the location of pigment, the nature of the free ends of the hair and other features. These features set hair accessories six main regional groups: the head, long hair Read more [...]
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Streptococci - Fixed spherical Gram-positive bacteria with a diameter of 0.8-1.0 microns, which are located in chains.
Most streptococci are aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and some - strict anaerobes. Anaerobic streptococci - More saprophytes are sometimes agents of wound infections and chronic inflammations. Streptococci do not form spores multiply by dividing direct and well-cultivated on artificial media. Pathogens streptococci form a capsule.
For the initial identification of streptococci use the growth pattern on agar with blood. According to this feature shared by viridans streptococci, Read more [...]
Sport - The kind of outdoor games, a variety of sports. Sports are diverse in content and effects on the body. As physical exercise, they have a number of features. Continuous change of gaming positions in the game forces participants to immediately react to the opponents and partners, making the necessary, most new movements. With this sports more than other exercise, in which pre-defined sequence of movements (like the gym) and they basically repeated (jogging, swimming, etc.), develop valuable qualities such as resourcefulness, determination, quick- unexpected context. The need to comply Read more [...]
This group includes miokarditichesky cardiosclerosis and rheumatic pericardium. According to GP Shultseva such lesions are found in 13% of sudden deaths of athletes. These diseases in athletes, and in general the young people, of course, are more common than they are diagnosed [Mikhailov, RA, 1972]. Cardiosclerosis, that is, the scars of the heart muscle, usually usually associated with the violation of the coronary circulation by atherosclerosis (atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis). However, the scars in the myocardium may be due to myocardial myocarditis rheumatic etiology and complications due Read more [...]
The result of a sedentary lifestyle, a person does not engage in physical exercise, does not make walks, constantly goes on your own car or public transportation, work diligently sitting during the day and in the evening watching television, is not immediate. But after 40 years, if not sooner, begin to disturb shortness of breath, heart palpitations, memory loss, weakness - first signs of the disease state.
The latest research in the field of physiology, morphology, biochemistry, show the benefits of the beneficial effects of physical activity in a living organism. Muscle activity contributes Read more [...]
Competition rules in boxing glove allowed attacks to the lower jaw, temples, neck, liver area, solar plexus, heart. 'Clean' victory in the ring is considered a victory when a boxer takes a partner of the fight by knockout. Knockouts and knockdowns * are not only physical, but also neuro-trauma.
Of the variety of post-traumatic symptoms experienced by athletes, highlight four clinical variants of post-traumatic disorders: 1-organic symptoms, 2 - vestibular disorders, 3 - vegetative-vascular disorders, 4 - neuro-psychiatric disorders.
Typical signs for the 1st group are violation the function Read more [...]
Serum group. It has been established for over ten serum systems with blood serum. However, in practice, an expert in the study of blood spots used only three of them: the system of haptoglobin (Hp), gamma immunoglobulin (Gm) and gruppospetsifi-cal component (Gc).
System haptoglobin contains three groups transmitted by inheritance (Hp 1 - 1, Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2), distinguishes the different electrophoretic mobility of their constituent fractions and found respectively in the population at 15, 50 and 35%.
Haptoglobin groups determined by electrophoresis in starch or polyacrylamide gel only in small Read more [...]
Antigen detection system AB0 (H) made by three main methods: a quantitative method of absorption of agglutinins is simple, avoiding the influence of various contaminants carrier subject, but is not sensitive enough, serological methods of absorption-elution and mixed agglutination very sensitive and are generally used to determine blood group in the traces of a small size. These methods are based on the ability of antibodies? and? absorbed by the corresponding antigens A and B. The disadvantage of methods absorption-elution and mixed agglutination, it is essential for them to use diagnostic Read more [...]
System P also used to determine group identification of the blood. P antigen not resistant to environmental factors and is present in red blood cells in approximately 70-80% of the European population. Different people have different antigen R by the expression - a strong, moderate and weak. Weak antigen can not be detected in traces of blood or found only in a very fresh stains. Strong antigen P is detected in the following significant limitations - from 4-5 months. To determine the group supplies blood traces in P requires 40-50 mg of blood stains. At the same time necessarily taken into Read more [...]