Adhesives, coated with microscopic needles 250 microns wide and 650 microns long, can introduce a DNA vaccine into the body. Such vaccines can help develop immunity against several diseases.The meaning of such vaccines is to familiarize the body with the genes of pathogens. The cells produce molecules grafted human pathogen, which signals the immune system of the aliens. DNA vaccines are more beneficial than usual. For example, do not need to spend time on the production and purification of proteins from pathogens. In theory, all make the body itself. Scientists have tried many times to increase Read more [...]
A new method of vaccination, similar to a temporary tattoo, allows you to enter the DNA vaccinated absolutely painless and with long enough to immune cells learned about pathogen.Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) to develop a vaccine that does not need to stick a syringe and stored under certain conditions, and in addition, it does not cause a person any discomfort.This vaccine, in contrast to most of today, uses no viral proteins or bacteria that you want to teach the immune system, and DNA. DNA vaccines in recent years have increasingly attracted the attention Read more [...]
16/12/2012 It turns out that if you disable only one gene called Bcl11a adaptive immune system cells cease to grow and fight bacteria and other pathogens.The adaptive immune system is very important because it protects a person from a recurrence of various infectious diseases. It is thanks to this system, all vaccines are effective and conquered many diseases, such as, for example, polio. In addition, the immune system recognizes it similar strains, such as influenza, a new strain of the disease milder. The discovery of a gene that can turn on and off the adaptive immune system, can be as Read more [...]
The work of scientists from the U.S. and Japan, under the direction of Russian, a graduate of the Tomsk State University and an adjunct professor at Washington University Dmitry Shayakhmetov,
the answer to one of the most problematic issues of medical science: on what grounds the immune system recognizes adenoviruses? The results of the study will help in the creation of reliable agents for targeted delivery of drugs to the affected organ. The paper was published in the journal Science.Dmitry Shayakhmetov: "We are the first to prove that the system can work as a coagulation of the immune Read more [...]
About ten years ago there was a theory that explains the widespread autoimmune diseases that modern man was practically free from pests. That is, parasitic worms, bacteria and viruses are required to properly configure our immunity. For a long time we have co-existed, and parasites, but now advances in medicine almost completely protect us from such partner, and immunity began to attack the body's own cells.
Theory initially seemed too revolutionary, but over time the proof of its use only to add. What is required for the immune balance intestinal bacterial symbionts have long been commonplace, Read more [...]
People living in countries where the sun shines often, rarely suffer from rheumatoid arthritis, according to U.S. scientists. They studied 200,000 women, says AMS citing BBC. The basic idea here is that vitamin D, produced by the sun, a positive effect on the body. The truth, to lie in the sun all day is not necessary.Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by the fact that the immune system attacks the human joints, causing pain. It is more common among women. As the staff of the Harvard Medical School, they were able to trace the two groups of women. Followed by one in 1976 and the second - in 1989. Read more [...]
Parasite Toxoplasma gondii able to change the behavior of rodents so that they lose their fear and become easy prey for cats. Parasite of cats can already be transmitted to man. Apparently, it affects the victim's immune system, causing it to produce a compound commonly found in the brain.Perhaps the immune system and the brain evolved, using a similar mechanism in order to control behavior, says Antonio Barragan from the Karolinska Institute. So, normally a parasite must absorb dendritic cells. Thus, other immune cells learn to recognize the pathogen. This writes MedDaily. However, the Read more [...]
As a method for the prevention of global risks is proposed to create various active shields. Active Shield - a means of control and influence on the source of risk across the globe. In fact, this is an analogue of immune system on a global scale. The most obvious example is the idea of a global missile defense system.
Activity sheets implies that they can be relatively autonomously respond to any stimulus, which falls under the definition of threat. In this shield completely covers the surface to be protected, that is, the surface of the Earth. It is clear that an autonomous board of control Read more [...]
Obviously, the company will resist this development. The first and the main instrument of protection - is to create a very tight control over the means of development of biological objects. However, to achieve this success, all countries should unite. But there is the opposite scenario - a biological war of all against all.
The second stage of protection - is to create a global immune system, which will include a monitoring tool in the field, an artificial implanted in human new immune system (already experienced transplant immune from person to person), acting on the principle of computer Read more [...]
Protect the body from infection occurs not only due to phagocytosis, but also due to humoral factors, that is, by forming substances in the cells, detoxifying bacteria and their waste products. Thus, in certain diseases caused by germs (infectious disease) in the body are produced and accumulated substances (antitoxins), neutralizing (probably by chemical binding) bacterial toxins - toxins. After repeated administration to animals in the blood of toxins accumulated in her respective antitoxins. Serum of these animals are used for therapeutic purposes.
In many infectious diseases (such as measles, Read more [...]
Athlete 15 years, candidate master of figure skating with the sporting experience of 7 years. In a competition in Prokopyevsk winter 1977 she won a prize. Flew to Leningrad immediately rewarding. On the plane began to feel dizzy, pain in eyeballs, appeared pulmonary hemorrhage. Was removed from a plane in Leningrad in the atonal condition. Resuscitative measures were ineffective and she died. Pathology diagnosis of influenza, hemorrhagic tracheobronchitis, total bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia, hemorrhagic pulmonary edema. According to her partner, the day she applied to the speech clinic Read more [...]
Chronic cholecystitis is desirable to begin treatment in the hospital, make greater use of the spa treatment. Athletes with chronic cholecystitis after treatment should be closely monitored physician because of possible relapse.
Obviously, the foci of chronic infection in athletes should be seen as a disease, is fraught with complications, and control is one of the urgent problems of modern sports medicine.
These are some summary of the main provisions concerning the evaluation of foci of chronic infection, and their importance in sports medicine.
Another very important factor, which should be Read more [...]
If in the normal immune response that ends with immunosuppression in cancer, he begins with it. Cancer "confuses" the immune system, causes it to "miss", "do not hit the target."
There are several theories of the suppressor effect of cancer on the body.
1. In order to avoid immune destruction, the ancestor of the tumor, or cancer stem cell, to suppress the cytotoxic function of NK cells and macrophages. Otherwise tumor not amounted i1sya. Oncogenes may serve as viruses, chemicals, physical factors. The essence of their action is not limited to mutagenesis, mutations Read more [...]
It was enough to have doctors immediately became interested in the combined treatments, including immunotherapy. It is evident that the surgical and radiation therapies do not reduce the risk of developing cancer cells away from the primary tumor site.
In 60 - 70 years were studied different schemes of administration of killed tubercle bacilli and other in a variety of malignant tumors, but fundamental change in treatment policy for cancer patients are not made. This does not have that attempts to increase the immunity of non-specific microbial stimulants (adjuvants) were in vain, but the success Read more [...]
Immunological open long tried to force their way into the not always trusting them "country oncology." The best criterion was always clinical practice. In the mid-1960s, American A. Goldstein isolated from the thymus of newborn animals soluble fraction, which enhances the function of T lymphocytes of people, for some reason weakened. The drug is called thymosin, it has become widely used to enhance the immune responsiveness of cancer patients. Itself thymosin not have antitumor activity, but he restored the activity of T-cells, weakened by chemotherapy or radiation. In our country Read more [...]
Cells, which then differentiate into participants immune response occur at a very early stage of individual development. They stem, primary elements appear in the yolk sac, and then to the liver - Authority blood of the embryo. From fetal liver, these cells migrate to the thymus, and after the 4th month of the bone marrow is a reservoir of stem lymphoid cells that act as required of it in the blood and develop into mature immune cells.
"Training" in the thymus lymphocytes reported ability to distinguish cells of the organism from foreign or their cells, but modified. Immature lymphocyte Read more [...]
Helper T-cells at the same time convey information about the antigen resting B-cells, if they were not self-stimulated antigen. B-cells start to differentiate into plasma cells and multiply as long as IL-2 is released. Plasma cells produce immunoglobulin M in a few days, and then switched to the synthesis of antibodies of the class G. Antiviral immunity peaks within a week after infection. Destruction of infected cells at this stage can quickly eliminate the disease, after which the production of T-killer cells and antibodies becomes physiologically inappropriate.
The next stage of the immune Read more [...]
Sensitivity to TNF defined surface receptors, their study reveals a tumor sensitive to exogenous TNF (tumor often they turn out at a relatively late stage of development), this factor was recently highlighted in a recombinant form of the hybrids derived TNF-producing fusion cells with E. coli. Believe that the use of tumor necrosis factor for medicinal purposes better to combine with interferon drugs or chemical agents such as actinomycin, mitomycin C, vinblastine.
A special place among immunomodulators produced by macrophages and other cells, belongs to interferon, which now has 14 varieties. Read more [...]
Immunology - The science that studies the defensive, mostly specific reactions, the nature of these reactions, consequences and ways of their practical use. Immunology is closely related to medical microbiology (see).
Immunology against Cancer
Fundamental immunological discoveries of the last three decades have led to the creation of a new direction in fact cancer. Currently, researchers are searching for specific tumor proteins, development of highly sensitive methods for their identification and use in diagnosis and therapy of cancer.
Designed for medical professionals.Content
Ebb and Flow
Resistance Read more [...]
Immunity - the immunity of the body to a foreign agent, in particular infection.
Availability of immunity associated with inherited and acquired individual factors that prevent penetration into the body and multiply in it of various pathogens (bacteria, viruses), as well as the action of the emissions of products. Immunity can not be only against pathogens: any alien to the organism-specific antigen (eg, protein) causes immunological reactions that result in the agent in some way removed from the body.
Immunity is diverse in origin, the expression, the mechanism and other features. Distinguish Read more [...]