Many, perhaps, believe that in time sleep all the cells of the nervous system a rest. How, then, is managed by the authorities, who continue their work and sleep? It appears that in time Sleep many cells of the nervous system in a state of a certain activity. These nerve cells control the administration of life-critical physiological processes: circulation, respiration, allocation, etc. However, these "vechnotrudyaschiesya" cells relative to rest. Their vacation is because of constant cycles of excitation and inhibition in the cortex.
Pavlov figuratively spoke of the "mosaic" Read more [...]
Inhibition in this case acts as a guardian of the nerve cell. It protects the cell from this fatigue, it emerged as a result of certain functional disorganization. Ukhtomskii believed that complex physiological processes that take place in each tissue, occur in time, with one chain of processes in sequence after another. Violation of this chain, this cyclicity, delay of a process or series of processes in time - all this affects the work of the tissue, causing it to functional disorganization and tiring. Process inhibition, thus suppressing the activity of tissue, you can restore the entire Read more [...]
Braking - a physiological process in the central nervous system, resulting in a delay of excitation. Inhibition can not be spread like excitations (see), as local process. Inhibition occurs at the time of the meeting of two impulses, one of which is inhibitory and the other inhibited.
Braking process was first shown in 1862, Russian physiologist IM Sechenov. Incision was made in the frog brain at the level of thalamus with the removal of the cerebral hemispheres. Measured the time reflex flick hindpaw immersed it in a solution of sulfuric acid (method of Turks.) When applied to the thalamus Read more [...]
Hemispheric white matter consists of nerve fibers that connect different parts of the cerebral cortex with each other and with the departments that are under bark - subcortex.
Bark cerebral hemispheres of the human brain is a highly organized part of the central nervous system. In the cortex, is many times more nerve cells (in humans up to 14 billion) than in other parts of the central nervous system. Processes of these cells, elongated, would have amounted to several thousand kilometers. Cells in the cortex have different shape and size. Thus, the bark - The highest part of the central nervous Read more [...]
The curves reflect the undulating nature of the movement sleep inhibition in the process of awakening.
Naturally, these schemes are valid in cases of incomplete awakening when the night is disinhibition of deep sleep phase. This may also occur on the dreams of two-, three-, and high-cycle type, with the difference, what happens if a secondary immersion in a deep sleep without dreams.
The latter case can be presented in a scheme (Figure 25). Neural mechanism described cycles of dreams is undulation of sleep inhibition at the cortical and subcortical signal system.
Fig. 25. Scheme cycles dreams Read more [...]
In 1935, a student of Pavlov AG Ivanov-Smolensky was first used for the treatment of prolonged sleep suffering from neuro-psychiatric disorders patients. They were given a small dose of sleeping pills. The drug is associated with different conditional stimuli: even blinking blue light bulb, or the muffled sound monotonous metronome. It should be noted that the neuro-psychiatric patients for the treatment of sleep were placed in a special chamber, where there was complete silence and gloom.
A well-designed treatment sleep brought healing to many patients from the disease.
Now the Soviet prolonged Read more [...]
We proceed to consider the neural mechanisms of dreams, in which the origin of the cash stimuli are not essential. One such mechanism is the dream of the dominant physiological principle, formulated Ukhtomskii (Collection op., Vol IV, 1945, p 125).
Under dominant Ukhtomskii understood "focus stationary excitation and increased reactivity in the centers." He considered the dominant principle as a special mechanism coordination in the nervous system. "It is a question - said Ukhtomsky, - the possibility of rebuilding the reactions and the possibility to predict their direction: Read more [...]
"Sleepy inhibition" also has a "protective inhibition" and helps to restore the health of the cerebral hemispheres. The deeper the sleep, that is, the intensity and extent of sleep inhibition, the more and more fully recover from.
Sleepy inhibition radiate as a form of cortical inhibition may arise from any form of inhibition that appears in the cerebral cortex. This physiological scheme is valid both for animals and in humans.
When the food or sexual excitability in dogs, as well as the action of super-strong contingent stimuli can develop transcendental inhibition, causes Read more [...]
Therefore, we must say that hypnosis hypnotic sleep is different from natural sleep, these six characteristics.
At the heart of both is a nervous mechanism occurring in the crust of sleep inhibition. But the extent of the intensity and configuration of sleep inhibition in both cases are different.
Most specific for hypnosis is somnambulistic phase. The common view among clinicians on this phase proceeds from the definition, which at the time was given the trout, namely somnambulistic phase defined as the third, deepest phase hypnosis, as a phase of deep sleep. In our laboratory, electrophysiological Read more [...]
Current scientific understanding of the physiological nature of sleep and hypnosis are based, first, on the theory of sleep and hypnosis Pavlov and, secondly, the data Meguna (Magoun) and Moruzzi (Moruzzi), concerning the physiological role of the so-called reticular formation the brain stem. According to Pavlov, sleep and hypnosis are developed first in the cerebral cortex.
Of great importance is the level of cortical excitability, which is regulated by the reticular formation.
Numerous experiments with conditioned reflexes, Pavlov found that the basis of the process is sleeping nervous mechanism Read more [...]
Everyone knows from experience what absurd and chaotic be dreaming. They most chaotically jumbled separate images, faces, thoughts, words, and other items recorded in the cortex of experience.
Such a feature of dreams depends on the development of cortical analysis, which determines rasscheplennost nerve tracks and the possibility of random combinations of individual elements.
Many authors, including Lhermitte indicate a change "image of our body" in dreams. As you know, "the image of our body" made up for the individual life of a set of skin, muscles, joints, and visual sensations. Read more [...]
Head brain is an organ of dreams. This is no doubt among the materialist-minded people.
Interestingly, the first children's dreams mixed with reality, and around the age of three are located "in the head."
Doubts arise when setting the question of what part of the brain localized dreams: in the cortex or in the subcortical region? Here opinions differ.
Consider first the notion of subcortical dreams. MI Astvatsaturov believed that "dreams are discrete images, not related to the general associative process is not controlled by consciousness and usually have a more or less clear Read more [...]
"Split Personality", observed in hysterical psychosis, and dissociation of cortical activity that occurs in the somnambulistic stage of hypnosis - is the phenomenon of the same order. At the heart of both of them is as a determining cortical neural mechanism of dissociation and negative induction.
This same mechanism explains the phenomena of somnambulism during natural sleep. With this neural mechanism is functional gap associative relationships.
Must be considered as the basis of Freud's so-called "crowding out" of a complex experience in the "subconscious" Read more [...]
It is known that after waking up, we may not be able to remember the dream. Often, we can state that the dream took place, but remember them we fail. There are people who are going through the dream, but they are usually not remembered. We have to address the question: what is the neural mechanism of amnesia, or forgetting of dreams?
Amnesia dream confronts the phenomenon of so-called "hypermnesia". It is about hypermnesia images, experiences, events in dreams during natural sleep and dreams, suggestion in hypnosis. Here there is worsening of memory, so images appear in the dreams Read more [...]
The task of the lesson: to give an idea of the importance of higher nervous activity in the external and internal inhibition, based on a compilation of the formation, inhibition of conditioned reflexes and discrimination stimuli give an idea about the physiological basis of animal behavior.
Equipment. Demonstration material: live objects - guinea pigs, rabbits, cat or other animals, paintings from the series "Animal World", movies "Inhibition reflexes, "or" Animal Behavior, "or" conditioned reflex ", Part 3, Table" Education and external inhibition Read more [...]
On the subject accounts for the work to form a very significant concept - "the higher nervous activity in animals and humans." For its formation, students should understand the basic processes in the cerebral cortex - the formation and inhibition of conditioned reflexes.
The concept of "higher nervous activity" is composed of a group of concepts that students should get: Of course, indifferent and conditional stimuli, unconditioned and conditioned reflexes and their arcs, the conditions of formation of conditioned reflexes, the temporal relationship and the mechanism of its Read more [...]
The physiological aspect of this phenomenon perfectly understandable. Weak cell cortex patient did not survive the nervous tension, and they developed a brake, and the dream, as deduced by Pavlov, and is a profound inhibition, poured into the cerebral cortex. Understand the psychological mechanism "flight into illness": from eleven to three hours of patients discharged from the hospital, and the fact that the patient every day at this time of deep sleep, she made it impossible to frighten her statement, turning the painful, hysterical mechanism rid of it.
Interesting and significant Read more [...]
In the previous chapter we talked about the basic principles of forming a full nervous system, to be followed in the education of any child.
However, there is nothing complex and individual human psyche, including the mental world of the child. No wonder Makarenko emphasized that there can not be the standard, equally suitable for all children by educational influence.
And really, how often parents and educators in sorrowful amazement shrug: also raised other children, and all was good, but this does not work.
We must always remember that the best, theoretically sound and practically proven educational Read more [...]
In another case, the subjects were asked to stare at the shiny neurological hammer or a glass rod or metal ball, achieving depletion of cells in the visual cortex of the brain analyzer. Is this where the laws of protective inhibition irradiation extends further, capturing the adjacent areas of the cortex. And here, in this method the hypnotherapist also says certain formulas verbal suggestion, reminiscent drowsiness on the subject, building them in a slightly different plan. For example: "Look closely at the shiny surface of the hammer ... and gradually your eyes will get tired ..., eyelids Read more [...]
Higher nervous activities consists of two opposing, interconnected, interwoven processes: the process of excitation and inhibition. On the report of Pavlov, these processes are like the two halves of the same activities that are not conceivable without the other.
Opening of inhibitory processes in the nervous system belongs to the founder of Russian physiologist Ivan Sechenov. Before him, it was thought that the nervous system and its main office - the brain have on the bodies of the animal organism only exciting activity to influence. Their classical studies Sechenov demonstrated that the central Read more [...]