Ions | The survival encyclopedia


When Foot Layers Break

    Pic: Cristoph NiemannWashables that dearest expert tee all you deprivation and you hush mightiness pinch a sniff of something filthy. That's because bacterium incline to marinade in semisynthetic fabrics, interpreting them range aft a flavour roughly of enceinte use. Fortuitously, with various fume-fighting fabrics now on the mart, thither's no motive to retreat your pedestal layers yearly. The succeeding clip you hit the local gearing grass, support the pursuit antimicrobic options in judgement.Woollen: The archetype chance framework is brobdingnagian again. Thanks to its instinctive Read more [...]
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The total disappearance of coral promised scholars canceled?

Growth in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leads to an increase in the amount of gas dissolved in the ocean water. This leads to an increase in the number of bicarbonate ions, reducing the number of carbonate ions and increased acidity. Scientists have long known that increasing ocean acidity adversely affect corals and shells of marine animals.A team of scientists led by University of California, Dr. Stephen Comeau decided to explore ways to preserve coral and shells. Corals Porite brought from French Polynesia, the scientists placed in special laboratory pools. In the laboratory, scientists Read more [...]
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Collision in the Large Hadron Collider suddenly produced a new type of matter

Collisions of protons with lead ions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have led to an unexpected result in the form of new particles created in the collisions. The new observations show that the impact could produce a new type of matter called color glass condensate (through the eyes). During the high-speed collision of particles formed hundreds noyvh particles, most of which departs from the place of collision at near light speed. But the team Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the LHC found that out of a sample of 2 million ion-proton collisions, some pairs of particles in the departure maintained Read more [...]
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In order not to poison gold, bacteria convert it into nanoslitki

Bacteria living on gold, protected from its toxic properties, maintained the metal ions into large nanoparticles, which can not penetrate into the cell, and therefore does not cause her any harm.About ten years ago, scientists discovered that some bacteria can live literally on gold, though it is not safe - gold can poison the cell. (Here it should be remembered that gold, though inert metal, still being able to go into solution in the form of ions.) Bacteria, however, found a way out: it turned out that they can turn into inert gold nanoparticles, which, although they accumulate within the cell, Read more [...]
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Comet of the century IONS filmed in the telescope

Comet "IONS", is now near the orbit of Jupiter, or at a distance more than 600 million km from Earth. But in late 2013, it will only 1.2 million km from the Sun's surface. If the comet survives after meeting with the sun, it will shine as bright as the moon with a huge fiery tail. Astronomers say that it will be sensational and startling sight to the naked eye from Earth's surface.Category: Space Read more [...]
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Earthlings will see a comet Eason

Vitaly Nevsky Russian astronomers and Artem Novichonok discovered a comet that can be seen from the Earth in the next year, according to Independent. Comet, which was named Eason, now you can see only in the most powerful telescopes, but she soon eclipsed by the brightness of the moon in the sky. September 20, Russian astronomers have routine work in Kislovodsk Observatory, capturing kinds sky with a telescope on a special digital camera. Upload photos to a special computer program that determines the motion of asteroids and comets, they found a bright celestial object. By the end of next summer, Read more [...]
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If on Mars, it's very fast!

If you fly in the Martian expedition to modern spacecraft, flight will take at least 500 days. Over this period, the space mission astronauts health may be lost forever. These are the results of research by Russian radiobiologists and physiologists, as discussed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) on the meeting of the Division of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine, Russian Academy of Sciences. The biggest danger scientists see in the galactic radiation: it can deprive a person of vision and understanding, without which neither the goal reach or return home will not work. Approval Read more [...]
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Physical factors of recovery-1

Artificial air environment (Air ions, gidroaeroiony, aerosols). Air ions - a particle of air bearing the negative or positive charge. Gidroaeroiony formed under natural conditions of the water (both positive and negative ions). Under the influence of negative ions decreases ESR, reduced blood clotting, normal content in it formed elements, manifested obschesedativnoe, normalizes sleep. Positive air ions act on organism in the opposite direction and slow down during the redox processes in the tissues. Action spray on the body is determined by the applicable drug substance. For introduction into Read more [...]
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Acid poisoning

Acids are compounds whose molecules in aqueous solution is cleaved by hydrogen ions. The severity of their toxicity depends on the amount of free hydrogen ions and increases with increase (due to the high degree of dissociation or acid concentration). The hydrogen ions rob tissue water, causing coagulation of proteins, protein break and lead to dry (coagulative) necrosis. Under the influence of a splitting of the hydrogen ions of hemoglobin, tissue stained with yellow-brown or grayish-brown. Dead tissue in contact with the acid form scabs plotnovatye surrounded areas of inflammation. Picture Read more [...]
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Permeability

Permeability - The ability of tissues, cells and subcellular structures (cell nucleus, etc.) to pass gas, water and various substances. Penetration of substances across biological membranes occurs passively or by active transport with special arrangements. Membrane permeability for different agents depends on the physicochemical properties of the latter, and on the limitations of the membranes. Violations of the permeability may result from the operation of various damaging factors: high and low temperature, radiation, certain substances (eg, toxins), lack of oxygen, vitamins, hormones, etc. Read more [...]
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Polarography

Polarography - a method of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis are based on the curves of the dependence of the current on the voltage in the circuit consisting of the test solution and the electrodes are immersed in it, one of which is strongly polarized, and the other is almost unpolarized. Obtaining such curves - polarogram - produce by polarography. Fig. 1. Scheme polarography. Fig. 2. Polarogram.The scheme is simple polarograph is shown in Fig. 1. Potentiometer 2, connected to the battery 1, gradually increasing the voltage supplied to the polarizing, usually dropping Read more [...]
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Mineral waters and their mechanism of action-3

Ions of iodine and bromine, which are often included in the chloride water (Talitskii, Khadyzhenskaya, nizhnesergievskaya) affect the metabolism, function of the nervous and endocrine glands. Bicarbonate water containing sodium cations act oschelachivayusche on stomach content, change the acid-base balance in the direction of alkalosis and have a positive effect in the treatment of diabetes. This type of water action effect is most pronounced, depending on the time of admission. Thus, the stimulation of gastric secretion causes water intake to food intake, inhibits its admission for 1 to 1.5 Read more [...]
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Electrophoresis drug

Electrophoresis drug (Synonym: galvanoionoterapiya, ionogalvanizatsiya, ionotherapy, iontophoresis, iontophoresis treatment) - effects on the DC and inputs for his help through the skin or mucous membranes of the drug particles. Electrophoretic drug changes the overall reactivity, promoting the so-called protective functions of the body, increasing the intensity of the exchange-trophic processes, etc. This drug substance intrinsic pharmacological effect appears at low doses, but due to delayed receipt of its depot in the skin blood flow - for a long period. Sources of the galvanic current, the Read more [...]
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Electrolytes

Electrolytes - substances, solutions or melts which conduct electricity. To electrolytes are acids, bases and salts. Substances not conducting electrical current in solution or molten state, is called non-electrolytes. These include many organic substances, such as sugars, alcohols, etc. The ability of electrolyte solutions conduct electricity attributed to the fact that the molecules of electrolytes when dissolved split into electrically positively and negatively charged particles - ions. The charge of the ion is numerically equal to the valence of an atom or group of atoms forming the ion. Read more [...]
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Brief information on bioelectric phenomena-3

Caged cations are partly related to the inorganic (C1 NR04), partly with organic anions (the latter includes radicals aspartic acid, acetic acid, pyruvic, lactic, fumaric, succinic, isethionic, glutamic acid, etc.). Using radioactive isotopes of potassium and sodium were determined movement speed of these ions in both directions (from the contents of the cells in its environment and vice versa). When converted to 1 cm2 of the surface of the cell membrane, they are for different cells in a state of rest from 11.10 to 5.10 -11 mol / s (A. Pasynskiy, 1968). Thus, the cell contains, on the one hand, Read more [...]
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Brief information on bioelectric phenomena-2

The proposed Hodgkin and his colleagues theory of excitation, based on experimental data with the giant squid nerve fiber, not applicable to all excitable formations. For example, smooth muscle fiber membrane of rat intestine is ten times more permeable to sodium than potassium ions, causing the source of the resting potential is the difference between the concentration of sodium ions. Sodium-potassium theory of the origin of biological currents now are most popular. "Questions about the nature of the transport of ions into the cell, creating an upward part of the action potential, the mechanism Read more [...]
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Brief information on bioelectric phenomena-1

Decrease in the resistance of the membrane shows an increase in its permeability, resulting in sodium and potassium ions begin to diffuse in opposite directions according to the concentration gradient (difference in their concentrations). At the beginning of the process of excitation permeability increases for sodium (It increases by 500 times and is several times greater than that for potassium). Rushing into the flow of positively charged sodium leads not only to neutralize the negatively charged surface of the inner membrane (depolarization of it), but also to the change in the sign of its Read more [...]
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Biochemistry of kidney

Biochemical processes in the kidney can be divided into three groups: the active processes of the urine, the formation of ammonia and release of substances with hormone-like effects. Urine formation in the body is composed of a passive process, where any foreign substances or metabolites by diffusion are the concentration gradient through the walls of the renal tubules, and active processes when the transfer takes place against a concentration gradient. These processes are often paired. Thus, the active reabsorption of positively charged sodium ions from the tubular fluid in the blood is accompanied Read more [...]
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Aeroionotherapy

Aeroionotherapy - The method of physical therapy, medical factor which is positively or negatively charged particles (ions) are formed from atoms or molecules of gases in the air, or artificially produced using air ionizers. Inhalation of such ions for therapeutic purposes is also called aeroingalyatsiey. But ions, with the purpose of treatment using gidroiony - tiny charged particles of water droplets (gidroaeroionizatsiya). The peculiar natural air ionization (balloelektrichesky effect) is observed by the waterfalls, on the banks of mountain rivers, near powerful artificial fountains during Read more [...]
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