Causes of RISK: hunger.These include: disease, natural disasters, hunger, heat and concomitant hunger, cold, fear, fatigue, loneliness, incorrect organization of relations inside the emergency group. That is to say, the primary enemy for a person caught in a disaster. You are not afraid to say that the conscience of this 10-CI 99% catastrophic outcomes of accidents.HUNGERHunger honey literature defines as "a set of feelings,expressing the body's physical needs for food". Oh, and "feeling" Oh, and "expresses" I, more precisely, my poor stomach - witness. Not once I had, from time to time from a Read more [...]
Use the language of science, the main purpose is to maintain the power of the biochemical consistency within the body. Mean daily energy costs are for men - 3000 kcal for women - 2500 kcal. When performing work associated with increased physical activity, they increase by 25-40% and reach 4500-5000 calories for women and 3500-4000 kcal for women. In comparison, studies have shown that the average energy of students is 50-75 kcal / h (1200-1800 kcal / day). Unfortunately, the source is silent as to which period corresponds to the figure, the normal or the session.The main components of the food Read more [...]
The most important task in distress - to warm up. In most cases, frostbite legs. And their chronic hypothermia leads to colds (up to the inflammation of the lungs). How to avoid Kholodova defeats? The first way - to have sufficient spare socks. If not, use the sleeves cut off from sweaters, woolen Gloves are great, the legs from spare pants. A nice change of socks - foot bindings of unnecessary clothing or any other material. The same cut-off sleeves and pant legs can make improvised leggings that protect shoes from getting into the snow. To socks when walking through the snow not ride, Read more [...]
Children with a body weight of about 1500 g or less are usually poorly breastfeed, it is very tired, and they should be fed from a bottle or breast does not apply to each feeding. When the first symptoms of fatigue (lethargy, cyanosis nasolabial triangle) should take away the child from the breast and supplementary feeding from a bottle.
If weight the child's birth is around 2000, it usually takes a good chest and sucks the necessary quantity of milk.
Number of feedings a premature baby is determined by its mass, condition, degree of functional maturity. Most often a 7-course feeding 6-hour Read more [...]
Properly constructed, rational food From the first days of life is essential for normal physical and neuropsychological development of the child and the development of immunity to disease. When building a nutrition should be aware of the high needs of children of different ages in all food components. Children should receive a sufficient amount of calories needed to meet all the needs of the growing organism. Daily caloric needs of children aged 1.5 to 3 years of 1500 kcal, 3-5 years - 1800 kcal, 5-8 years - 2000-2400 kcal, 8-12 years - 2400-2800 kcal, 13-16 years - up to 3000 kcal.
In the nutrition Read more [...]
The concept of basic relief diet was established fifty years ago academician Charvát. Diet for middle age (height 170 cm), corresponding to about 3790 kJ (906 kcal) per day, and some nutrients in it are as follows:
70 g protein 1200 kJ (287 kcal)
60 g carbohydrate 1030 kJ (246 kcal)
40 g fat 1560 kJ (373 kcal)
Total: 3790 kJ
Table 7. Primary circuit diet Charvát
Protein foods, g Fat, g carbohydrates, g Energy value kJ (kcal) 130 g veal
80 g lean ham
1 biscuit (20g)
100 g of potatoes 200 g of fruit 300 g of vegetables 10 g butter 100 grams of milk 28.1 17.6 2.3
11.5 1.9 Read more [...]
During normal activities, accompanied by a move, that is the muscle work, consumed energy released from nutrients or replacement of sources. Backup power in the first place are fats, which the body compared with the reserves of carbohydrates (maximum 300 g) was much higher (depending on the sex of 15 to 30% of the total mass in people with normal weight).
Today, the average daily consumption of an adult male, track and work, is estimated at 10 800-10 900 kJ (2600 kcal) for women - slightly smaller: about 9600 kJ (2300 kcal).
Rough estimate of energy consumption for various activities for adults Read more [...]
In children, the metabolism in relation to growth and development is extensive, therefore children and adolescents need more full of nutritious foods than adults. For infants up to 6 months is recommended to receive the food 460-500 kJ (110 - 120 kcal) per 1 kg of weight from 6 to 12 months - 420 kJ (100 kcal), including proteins 2-3.5 g, fat 3 -3.5 g, carbohydrates 10-12.5 g per 1 kg of body weight. Daily intakes of energy for the older features (according to our experimental data) in Table. 4.
Table 4. Daily intakes of energy, recommended for children and adolescents with normal weight *
Age, Read more [...]
Another cause of completeness - often represents the opportunity to eat and drink, especially for free. Obesity is much more common among members of certain professions, chefs, waiters, kitchen staff and indeed all those who deal with food, are constantly exposed to temptation, and often forced to try. Despite the small portions, this extra meal than usual supply.
A lot of energy can unwittingly get together for drinks. The idea of great benefit to the health of milk also has certain limits. We should not forget that the milk contains all the essential nutrients in the optimal ratio, and 100 Read more [...]
Researchers attach great importance to energy intake in the direction of the metabolism and function of the aging organism. With age, reducing the need for high-calorie food that is attributable to reduced energy costs. This situation has a number of prerequisites. First of all, we should look at the level of the basal metabolism, which gradually decreases with age.
Reducing the intensity of the basal metabolism is largely determined by the decrease with age, physical activity, size of active (muscular) body weight, intensity of metabolism, activity and other physiological reactions of the vital Read more [...]
The energy released in the reactions of the Krebs cycle, "stored" in the phosphate bonds of ATP molecules. Further, in accordance with the needs of the body, the energy of these links to costs of the numerous biochemical and physiological functions of the body.
The total demand for energy in humans, leading predominantly sedentary lifestyle, is about 2400 kilocalories (kcal) per day, or about 10,000 kJ (in SI 1 calorie = 4.1868 J). During oxidation in the body 1 g carbohydrate released on average 4.1 calories, 1 g fat - 9.3 kcal and 1 g of protein - 4.1 kcal. The daily need for protein Read more [...]
Indeed, people who are addicted to alcohol, usually decreases appetite, their diet is dominated by carbohydrates, the total amount of food intake and caloric value significantly. This is facilitated by frequent development in people who abuse alcohol, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), in which food intake causes pain in the upper abdomen. Moreover, high doses of alcohol complicate intestinal absorption of some important components of food (fat, vitamin B1, folic acid, etc.). But the main role in the development of the decline of the power Read more [...]
It is known that one for quite a long time can go without food, while maintaining high physical and mental activity. This ability to do without revenues from outside energy source has long attracted the attention of physiologists. Back in the 80's of last century, was made a classic experiment where participants, Italian Sutstsi and Marlett, within 30 - 35 days without taking any food and still exhibited a high capacity for physical and mental activity. In subsequent years, domestic and foreign physiologists repeatedly experimented with different terms fasting animals with test volunteers.
Adaptive Read more [...]
In humans and other mammals advanced body temperature is kept constant through the mechanisms of thermoregulation, which ensure normal functioning of the organism. Increased body temperature leads to significant shifts metabolism and function of organs and systems. When the temperature of 2 ° is there are significant abnormalities in the cardiovascular system and a noticeable decrease in performance. Raising it to a 4 - 5 ° and more incompatible with the life of the organism.
Interest is the relationship of body temperature to changes in ambient temperature. The experiments were performed Read more [...]