The etiology and pathogenesis of leukemia

Genetic theory. This theory deserves special attention because the prevalence observed in some families LA, particularly in identical twins. The fact that the parents of patients with leukemia, usually born healthy children, does not contradict the genetic (hereditary congenital) theory as well as LA, apparently, refers to diseases with a low genetic penetrance. In genetic terms have the meaning revealed by the recent abnormal karyotypes with L. In chronic myeloid leukemia known defect in the 21st pair of chromosomes ("Philadelphia chromosome»Ph '), the essence of which is to reduce Read more [...]
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The etiology and pathogenesis of leukemia

The etiology and pathogenesis remains unclear. Deserve the attention of some of the theoretical concept of the etiology of leukemia. Chemical theory. In the body, formed endogenously or penetrate from outside substances - so-called carcinogenic (leykozogennye) hydrocarbons. An experimental model of LA can not play in mice by introducing them or lipid extracts from the liver of people who died of leukemia, or cancer-causing hydrocarbons (eg, 1, 2, 5, 6 dibenzanthracene, 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene, 1 , 2-benzpyrene and methylcholanthrene). There are indications that the sensitivity of Read more [...]
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Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide (Cyclophosphanum; synonym Endoxan, List A) - an antitumor agent. Apply with chlamydia, lymphosarcoma, retikulosarkome, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and lung cancer, breast, ovarian, bladder, etc. Assign intramuscular or intravenous cyclophosphamide, 0.2 g (10 mL of 2% solution) 2-3 times a day, for a course of treatment from 4 to '14 can assign as inside, intraperitoneal and intrapleural. Higher doses of the vein and intramuscularly: single - 0.3 g daily - 0.6 g Cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in severe leukopenia (less than 2,500 white blood cells Read more [...]
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Synonym: lymphatic leukemia, lymphatic leukemia! chronic lymphoid leukemia) can be defined as a system of elements proliferation of lymphatic tissue with lymphoid metaplasia of bone marrow blood. All other forms of leukemia, it has a number of characteristics. First, given that the main feature of each leukemic process is morphological anaplasia cell dedifferentiation and gradually as the disease progresses, it seems unusual that occurs with chronic lymphocytic leukemia is constantly "mature" cellular composition of blood and leukemic infiltrates in the Read more [...]
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Chronic leukemia in children

Chronic leukemia in childhood are much rarer acute. Chronic forms of lymphocytic leukemia in children almost never occur, chronic myelogenous leukemia are rare, more often get to see and subleykemicheskie leukemic form of chronic myeloid leukemia and much less - aleukemic. In children and for their symptoms are the same as in adults. Treatment chronic myeloid leukemia. Key policy guidance treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in children are the same as in adults. However, even in older children the disease process is almost never enough compensated and therefore can not always be confined Read more [...]
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Chronic leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (Synonym: myeloid leukemia myelosis, myeloid leukemia) tend to change in blood in the form of hyperproliferative disorders and differentiation at the level of promyelocytes and myelocytes. In the very early phase of the disease germs more blood (except granulopoiesis) can develop normally. As the process of bone marrow erythroblastic germ sharply narrows, and granulocyte and megakaryocyte myelopoiesis sprouts growing. While myeloid leukemia infiltrates beyond the bone marrow and develop in the spleen and liver. Myeloid metaplasia in the lymph nodes expressed little. Read more [...]
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Tiofosfamid

Tiofosfamid (Thiotepa, Thiophosphamidum; List A) - an antitumor agent. Used in ovarian cancer, breast cancer, inoperable cervical cancer, peritoneal mesothelioma, as well as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia (with leukemic form) retikulosarkome, lymphosarcoma. Tiofosfamid designate the interior of 0.01-0.02 g in day (3 times a week), at the course an average of 0.15-0.25 g, as well as intramuscular or intravenous injection of 0.01 g in the first days of daily or every day, thereafter at 2 - 07/05/14 days, course treatment from 0.1 to 0.3 g Produce in sealed Read more [...]
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Tiodipin

Tiodipin (Thiodipinum; List A) - an antitumor agent. According to the structure and close to dipinu (see), but, in contrast, is effective when taken orally. Apply with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (leukemic forms), chronic myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin's disease in children. Tiodipin take tablets to 0,005 - 0.02 g (in 1-3 divided doses) per day. The total dose of treatment was 0.5-0.75 When treatment is necessary to closely monitor the blood picture. Possible complications and contraindications - see antineoplastic. Form Product: pills to 0,005 and 0.01 g Store in a cool, dry, dark place. Read more [...]
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Radiographic changes in leukemia

In leukemia can be detected radiographically changes in the skeleton, organs of the chest and gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the skeleton in adults radiographically detected in 45-50% of cases. They are located in the diaphysis of long bones, but may be in the flat and short bones. Frequent changes in the skeleton, detected as small foci of destruction of oblong-oval. Land degradation can capture the entire thickness of the bone (Fig. 3). Changes are expressed as a longitudinally razvoloknennoy, meshed, confused structure of the bone or diffuse osteoporosis, sometimes shows only accentuated Read more [...]
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Pathology private forms of leukemia

Fig. 3. Femoral bone marrow in acute gemotsitoblastoze, atrophy of the cortex of the bone. Acute gemotsitoblastoz characterized by the proliferation of poorly differentiated cell type hemocytoblasts. Bone brain struck diffusely dark red or grayish-green, with areas of hemorrhage. Microscopically hemocytoblasts consists entirely of a typical, however twisted core and some myelocytes and myeloblasts. In some cases, dominated by immature myeloid forms. Bone atrophy beams sharply, sometimes disappear (Color Table., Fig. 3) observed the germination of the cortex and the formation of extensive Read more [...]
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Pathology of leukemia

General characteristics of the pathological changes. Leukosis characterized by the proliferation of cells of hematopoietic tissue, which differ from the normal loss of the ability to mature. Leukemic process begins with the destruction of hematopoietic organs (bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). It also involved the organs that were in utero hematopoietic (liver and spleen). Gradually, the process becomes generalized and leukemic infiltrates are found almost everywhere. They arise from undifferentiated autochthonous reticular cells located in the walls of blood vessels, interstitial glands and Read more [...]
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Antineoplastic agents

Antineoplastic agents - Drugs used for the treatment of malignant tumors. Drug therapy is not a substitute for operating and radiation treatments, but complements them, and only in certain tumor diseases could be used as the sole method of treatment, such as leukemia, Hodgkin disease, retikulosarkomatoze, multiple myeloma, chorionepithelioma uterus. Anticancer drugs, for practical applications in oncology, can be divided into the following groups: 1) hormones (sex hormones, corticosteroids); 2) alkylating agents - hloretilaminy (embihin, novembihin, Sarcolysin, dopa, degranol, novembitol, hlorbutin, Read more [...]
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Acute leukemia in children

Acute leukemia in children more often chronic, start gradually and initially present with vague objective symptoms and the various complaints of the patient. Children become lethargic, moody, bad sleep, lose their appetite, complain of general weakness, easy fatigue, bone pain. The exact time the first sign is usually not possible, sometimes the disease is detected in a blood test randomly. Initial low-grade fluctuations in body temperature in the future become more significant and longer, increasing pallor of the skin and visible mucous membranes, there are sporadic cutaneous and subcutaneous Read more [...]
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Acute leukemia

Reticulosis divided into: 1) diffuse and 2) show a tumor growths. The first characteristic of the absence of marked hyperplasia of the lymph nodes and spleen. For this variant of leukemia main clinical feature is progressive anemia, similar to aplastic (hypoplastic). One of the peculiar transitional forms reticulosis-gemotsitoblastoza must be considered erythroleukemia (leucanemia, the old terminology), characterized by a tendency to partial differentiation hemocytoblasts erythroblastic elements in series with marked anaplasia of the latter (see erythroleukemia). Since tumor growths occur reticulosis, Read more [...]
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Acute leukemia

Acute leukemia characterized by impaired blood level of reticular cells hemocytoblasts, myeloblasts or lymphoblasts and the development of pathological lesions of blood (leukemic infiltration) in the spleen, lymph nodes, liver, etc. The disease begins long before the rapid manifestation of clinical symptoms with a small amount of lethargy and blurred bone pain. During a detailed picture of the disease has been a sharp weakness, bone pain, fever and chills and profuse sweat, shortness of breath. For no apparent reason there are small and large hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes, bleeding Read more [...]
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Radiation therapy of leukemia

Radiation therapy of leukemia is one method nepatogeneticheskogo treatment in which the main objective was reaching remission duration, accompanied by improvement in general condition, reduction of symptoms, the relative normalization of the morphology of the blood, rehabilitation. The methods of radiation therapy is the assumption about the nature of the tumor disease, and therefore the purpose of influence is to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Radiation therapy is used in chronic myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. Apply radiotherapy and radioactive phosphorus in combination with tonic and hormone Read more [...]
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Leukemia after radiation exposure

Evidence of leukemia due to radiation is the frequency of the disease among the survivors of a nuclear explosion, doctors - radiologists, patients exposed to radiation for therapeutic purposes. Etiologic role of ionizing radiation in causing leukemia is shown in experiments on different kinds of animals as in the external irradiation, and when the body evenly distributes (Nb95, Cs137, H3) and osteotropic (Sr89 and Sr90, Pu239, etc.) of radioactive isotopes. A certain dependence of the frequency of the dose and the LA weight of the irradiated tissue. Most authors recognize the threshold leykemogennogo Read more [...]
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Chronic myeloid leukemia

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (synonym chronic myelosis) is characterized by enhanced reproduction in bone marrow myeloid cells with a delay of maturation, while in peripheral blood leukocytes, along with mature, intermediate forms of myeloid - promyelocytes and myelocytes. Myeloid infiltration develops in the spleen, liver and other organs. The disease is asymptomatic for a long time and is diagnosed with a random blood tests (moderate increase in the number of leukocytes and the presence of promyelocytes and myelocytes). In the period of pronounced symptoms marked weakness, bone pain, sweating, Read more [...]
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LEUKEMIA

Children are found mainly acute leukemia and chronic leukemia rarely. The clinical picture of acute leukemia in children and adults is very similar. Feature of acute leukemia in children is more frequent and pronounced swelling of the lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Occasionally there is a sharp increase in the symmetrical lacrimal and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual) - Mikulicz syndrome. Crucial for the diagnosis of acute leukemia is a change of white blood. In the leucocyte count has a larger or smaller number of leukemic blast cells. Often there was a sharp increase Read more [...]
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Leukemoid reaction

Leukemoid reaction - a temporary significant increase in the number of leukocytes in response to a stimulus, accompanied by the appearance in the blood of immature forms of leukocytes. The number of leukocytes in leukemoid reactions may reach 50,000 or more in 1 mm3 of blood. Unlike leukemia (see), with leukemoid reactions can be detected disease, caused it (infection, intoxication, malignant tumors, skull injury, etc.), in the spleen punctate no leukemic change; picture normal blood as the elimination of the underlying disease. Leukemoid reaction - abnormal reaction of the blood in which the Read more [...]
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