Under tensile understand the damage to the ligaments, muscles, tendons and other tissues without disrupting their anatomical integrity. Usually, stretching — very painful injury in which in addition to the pain in the joint there is a significant swelling of the tissues.
First aid for stretching is this: you need to attach the injured limb above and apply to the injured place a cold compress (e.g., soaked in cold water towel). Half an hour later, the joint should tightly wrap and send the victim to the doctor (of course, not their own).
Most commonly injured ligament Read more [...]
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ligament is often accompanied by their partial and sometimes complete rupture. The most commonly injured ankle. In this extension is important (although sometimes difficult) to exclude ligament rupture, with a rum continued participation in the campaign is impossible. In the absence of the gap is less intense pain, decreases in 1 - 2 day (at break, on the contrary, strengthens), less pronounced and swelling of the joint. In addition, the victim, though in pain, but it can go. First aid for ankle sprains: impose a bandage in the form of "eight", put the victim with one foot and the Read more [...]
Stephan Drake was midway consume a backcountry ski run in Alaska death Marchland, cinematography with Sweetgrass Productions and Patagonia, when he airy concluded a engulf back onto an unexpected farting cheekiness. The hoodwink grabbed his rightfield ski and Drake matte the apparent snatch! of his genu splitting obscure as he trilled consume the gradient similar a starfish. Having lacerated his prior cruciform and median confirming ligaments in 2009, the 37-year-old pro skier and DPS Skis break knew precisely what the snapping adept meant. Temper terminated. And: sentence to brand a conclusion. Read more [...]
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Spinal injuries - one of the most severe injuries of the musculoskeletal system. This is due to the variety of functions the spine: first, ensuring the normal function of complex neural connections carried the spinal cord and its elements, and secondly, the spine - an important link musculoskeletal man carrying a large static and dynamic loads.
According to the 3. V. Basilevsky, Priorov and other spinal injury ranged from 2 to 18%, remains high, and mortality. With injuries of the cervical spine, it is 33.3%, breast - 8.3%, lumbar - 6.2% (VV Gorinevskaya, 1958).
Of spinal injuries are four common Read more [...]
Fig. 1. Bones and ligaments man (front view):
1 - lower jaw, 2 - upper jaw, 3 - orbital bone, 4 - ethmoid, 5 - sphenoid, in - temporal bone7 - lacrimal bone, 8 - parietal bone, 9-frontal bone, 10 - eye socket, 11 - nose bone, 12 - pear-shaped hole, 13 - anterior longitudinal ligament, 14 - midclavicular ligament 15 - Front sterno-clavicular ligament, 16 - beak acromioclavicular ligament, 17 - the acromioclavicular ligament, 18 - klyuvoakromialnaya ligament 19 - klyuvoplechevaya ligament 20 - costo-clavicular ligament 21 - radiant sternocostal ligaments, 22 - external intercostal membrane, 23 Read more [...]
In clinical practice, isolated traumatic injuries ligament of Patellar occur very rarely. In the available foreign and domestic literature contains only a description of the individual observations and casuistic cases. Рентгеноморфофункциональных objective description. the characteristics of a given one of pathology, little attention is paid unfairly, yet this type of damage is of great interest for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of further functions of the lower limbs. Need for full recovery ligament of Patellar dictated the importance of its function in Read more [...]
External lateral ligament rupture in athletes is due to a sharp reduction of violent leg, which is observed at the time of application of force in the area of traumatic internal department of the knee with a fixed stop.
Symptoms. Bleeding in the cavity Knee, pain along the outside of the joint space and in the head of the fibula, an abnormal reduction of the tibia. Movement in the joint is limited due to pain. When walking the precarious Knee.
Conservative treatment. In case of partial rupture of the external lateral ligament is necessary to make a puncture Knee, remove blood and enter into Read more [...]
It occurs when excessive flexion of the lumbar spine and most common among gymnasts, acrobats and weightlifters.
Symptoms. Local tenderness and pain interspinous gap in flexor-extensor movements. Most conclusive proof presumptive diagnosis - contrast ligamentografiya (IA Movshovich, AE Dmitriev).
Treatment. Emergency hospitalization in a specialized facility, providing rest for 3 weeks, back massage, heat physiotherapy, paravertebral injection of novocaine. In cases
ineffective medical treatment is applied promptly treatment - Plastic replacement interspinous ligament or fascia lavsan. Read more [...]
Damage to the inner side ligament (see Fig. 24a, b), occur at the time of the sharp violent abduction or rotation leg outwards (mostly football players, wrestlers and rugby players - a fall or application capture). Do gymnasts and acrobats of injury due to a violation of vehicles touchdown. The mechanism of injury is usually indirect. Distinguish between tears and ligament sprain.
Symptoms. At break inner side damaged ligaments and fibrous elements of synovial capsule of the knee. It identifies the swelling and the increase in the knee due to bleeding into the joint, and in paraartikulyarnye Read more [...]
Fig. 21. Determine the strength of cruciate and collateral ligaments of the joint:
and - full extension b - bending angle of 30 °; in - bending angle of 90 °
Damage to the anterior cruciate ligament the athletes - the most severe type of injury and occurs quite often (Fig. 21a, b, c).
Symptoms. In the acute phase there is the phenomenon of hemorrhage into the cavity Knee and paraartikulyarnye tissue pain along the inside and outside of the joint gaps. Movement in the joint is limited and painful, marked instability of the knee. In a study of positive symptom defined "front of the drawer." Read more [...]
Damage to the posterior cruciate ligament the athletes are much rarer. The mechanism of its most direct, ie, blow to the anterior surface of the proximal tibia in the knee flexion that occurs, usually in the moment of impact players (football, rugby) and falls.
Symptoms. Bleeding in the cavity of the knee joint pain during palpation of the joint space and movement, abnormal displacement tibia posteriorly (positive symptom "back of the drawer").
Conservative treatment. In the acute phase of injury in patients with severe hemarthrosis removes blood from the joint, introduced a 2% solution Read more [...]
Under mikrotravmatizatsiey ligament of Patellar means peculiar clinical trauma own bundles in the apex of the patella, as well as in the area of individual fibers weaving it into the tuberosity of the tibia. The characteristic feature of this disorder - weak expression of clinical changes. Of pathology in the transition zone fibers ligament of Patellar the patella due to the conditions of biomechanics of the knee, which is vulnerable in sports to high loads and stresses. Systematic this voltage level joint and muscular system, especially its anatomical and physiological structure lead to pathological Read more [...]
This spinal injury occurs mainly in classic fighters and freestyle wrestlers, diver and gymnasts. Most often subject to trauma ligaments cervical spine, at least - of the lumbar and thoracic. Basic mechanisms of spinal ligament sprain - flexion (70%), flexion-rotational (15.3%), compression (14.7%).
Damage cervical spine during wrestling match can be caused by indirect trauma - the power of the impact of support in the final stages of a throw to the longitudinal axis of the spine to the point of application to a particular part of the head. When direct trauma external force acts in the direction Read more [...]
Fig. 45. Dissection of the splenic-diaphragmatic ligament: 1 - piece of spleen-diaphragmatic ligament, 2 - spleen, 3 - stomach.
Removal technique of the stomach together with the spleen. When a large curvature freed by the removal of the gland of the colon and omentum is due only to the stomach and spleen (see Fig. 15), do not cross the left gastroepiploic artery, deduce the spleen into the wound. For this strongly retracted mirror left edge of the wound to the left hand grasp the spleen and possibly assigning it to the right, open left leaf-diaphragmatic splenic ligament, which runs from the Read more [...]
Dissection gastrolienal ligament. To do this, as described above meets the left gastroepiploic artery (see Fig. 15). Now the greater curvature of the stomach remains in connection with the spleen only through the gastro-splenic ligament, which is essentially a top-left division of the greater omentum and comes from the greater curvature of the stomach to the gate of the spleen. Between the sheets of this ligament laid some fat and short gastric vessels, which are three in number, rarely four, crossing from the spleen to the stomach and supply it to the upper section of the greater curvature. Read more [...]
When the spleen is derived in the wound, grab her arm and pull the leg, which crosses between the clamps. In this case, try not to damage the tail of the pancreas (Fig. 47). Immediately dissected vessels ligated strong thread. If the tail of the gland cancer nodes are determined, it is not removed from the vessel, and a strong pinch clip with them CENTRAL existing nodes. The affected area of the tail cut off with a leg spleen (Fig. 48) and stump cancer, clamping clip with the stumps of splenic vessels tied up with one strong ligature. No other treatment of cancer of the stump is not required.
Fig. Read more [...]
Spinal injury occur at different mechanism of injury. Usually referred to four main types of abuse: bending, flexion with rotation, extension and compression. Damage Spinal fractures can be accompanied by the body, handles, processes of the vertebrae, intervertebral disc injury, a dislocated vertebra and perelomovyvihom and finally isolated ligament injuries, including interspinous ligaments of the lumbar vertebrae.
Interspinous ligament damage often not diagnosed surgeon and patient for a long time are diagnosed with "low back pain". However, this damage spine is not so rare.
Distinguish Read more [...]