External mag, January 1996A Lung in Men's VestureBy Todd Balf and Paul Kvinta (with Brooke DeNisco, Martin Forstenzer, and Eileen Hansen)Mat Carpenter pitched his common psych job at his mountain-running rivals ahead finale October's Everest Skymarathon--he wears an air dribble that renders him a clone for a praying mantis--but he needn't deliver fazed. The two-time defending ace already had his opponents vibration in their sneakers when he scored off the Read more [...]
There are people who are convinced that smoking a few cigarettes a day is not harmful, and even useful, and in general, they say, - rumors about the dangers of tobacco are greatly exaggerated physicians.
- You, Doctor, do not smoke - tells me one of those supporters of smoking. - We go to work on the same street, inhaling so much smoke from passing cars, my cigarettes are not pale in comparison to this health hazard.
Of course, many are known carcinogens, into the air with the dust from the asphalt, with car exhaust fumes and smoke emissions of the factory and the factory chimneys. And yet, Read more [...]
Radiodiagnosis. X-ray semiotics emphysema quite diverse and reflects certain pathological and pathophysiological changes in different stages of the disease. At present, most authors divide all radiological signs of pulmonary emphysema on the morphological and functional.
Rentgenomorfologicheskie symptoms, reflecting changes in the shape and size of the cells difficult, are secondary and usually indicate a very advanced phase flow of emphysema. The most characteristic feature of severe emphysema is the so-called barrel chest deformity (Fig. 3), especially clearly shown in the study because of Read more [...]
Morbid anatomy. The increase in lung emphysema is due to high content of air in their respiratory departments, ie, distal to the terminal bronchioles. By the nature of the flow are acute and chronic emphysema, localization - focal, diffuse, bilateral, unilateral, lobar, in relation to acini - panatsinarnuyu (indiscriminate total swelling of all the elements of the acinus) and selective (with primary swelling proximal or distal acinar). By election is tsentrilobulyarnaya emphysema, is characterized mainly by stretching the respiratory bronchioles of the first and second order against unstretched Read more [...]
Echinococcus lung a cystic stage of the tapeworm, Echinococcus. When echinococcosis (see) is in first place liver, the second - the lung.
There are three periods during echinococcosis LA - Asymptomatic, period clinical manifestations caused by the growth of the cyst and its effect on lung tissue and pleura, and the period of changes in the parasite (suppurating cyst, punching her with access to the content bronchus or pleural cavity). Patients complain of chest pain, cough, caused by the pressure of the cyst on the bronchi. From the blood - anemia, eosinophilia. Diagnosis is based on radiological Read more [...]
Pulmonary surgery in USSR began to develop the most successful since the mid 30's of this century. The founder lung surgery in USSR SI is Spasokukotsky. Under his leadership, began the development of methods of surgical treatment of pulmonary suppuration. In 1936, he summarized the clinical observation of 500 patients with pulmonary suppuration, and in 1938 he published his book "Surgery suppurative lung and pleura, "which is a classic.
Large role in the development of lung surgery and introduction into clinical practice of radical surgery belongs Bakulev E. and B. Lindberg. Read more [...]
New possibilities of surgical treatment of tumors of the bronchi are opened in connection with the development of plastic surgery in the tracheobronchial tree. Summary of the operations - circular resection of bronchus followed mezhbronhialnym end anastomosis in end. Resection bronchial tubes and plastic allow the most economical operation with preservation of valuable functional lung parenchyma, and if necessary - advanced operations on the organs of respiration.
Adenoma of the large bronchi, until recently, been accepted radical surgery lobectomy and even Pneumonectomy. Now these operations Read more [...]
Wheezing - is abnormal respiratory sounds. On the mechanism of wheezing, as well as the audio experience that you receive when listening to them, crepitation divided into dry and wet.
Bubbling rale occur when fluid accumulates in the bronchi (liquid secretion or blood) passing a stream of air accumulated liquid froth formed on the surface of the bubbles burst and ear investigating perceived as moist rales. When fluid in the bronchioles and small bronchi (bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis) listened finely wheezing, when the liquid secretion or blood contained in the bronchi medium to large size Read more [...]
Lung function are closely related to the peculiarities of their structure. Thanks to the hundreds of millions of alveoli, the total surface which is up to 90 m2, with a surface of capillary network of up to 80 m2, together make up the alveolar-capillary membrane, L. serve not only to breathe, but also to highlight, to maintain a constant body temperature. Lungs are also involved in the development of products involved in the regulation of blood clotting (Pavlov), the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. See also Breath.
Experiments have shown that many simple and condensed phenols are more or less pronounced kokantserogennym action. Kokantserogennym powerful action the phenolic fraction of tobacco smoke. If we consider that as part of the smoke contains carcinogens and classic type of benzo (a) pyrene, it is easy to imagine that this combination contributes to the development of lung cancer, respiratory tract, oral cavity and esophagus, and bladder (urine metabolites of carcinogens and are removed kokantserogenov, Validating in the body). Phenolic kokantserogeny as tobacco smoke carcinogens, activate hydroxylase Read more [...]
And now create joint bronchus is not completely solved the problem of lung surgery. Of special importance is the problem with nekupiruyuschemsya Inflammation of the bronchial tree.
Research indicates the theoretical possibility of ultrasonic welding of bronchial stump after partial resection of the lung. However, questions remain unresolved choice of filler material is more similar in chemical composition and bio-compatible with the cartilaginous tissue of the bronchus. The problem is in the fact that for a long time to keep weld bronchial stump.
Recent results of experimental studies of the Read more [...]
Why is the use of ultrasound allows the best way to solve some problems of diagnosis and surgery of lung and pleura?
Ultrasound - high-frequency sound waves, non-ionizing effect when those energy levels and exposure time, which are used in the diagnosis. Over the last few years not a single case, direct or detectable over a period of time damaging his actions. Absolute safety of ultrasound, a large resolution and the possibility of multiple repetition of studies show great promise of its use for diagnostic purposes.
Domestic and foreign researchers found that the most effective ultrasound diagnosis Read more [...]
Foreign bodies in the lungs are the result of the injuries (broken, bullets). When administering first aid surgical foreign bodies removed during thoracotomy, made in connection with wound L., bleeding or injury to the diaphragm. Search foreign body and removal possible if it is large, can easily be detected and removed. Special search of small foreign bodies, complicating the operation irrational. In the later stages removal foreign bodies shown in suppurative processes around them, in the presence of extensive inflammatory infiltrates in the lung, hemoptysis, or bleeding, pain and functional Read more [...]
Traumatopnea damage occurs when the chest. Traumatopnea can be external or internal, closed or open. Outside pneumothorax called open if the air you breathe is absorbed through a wound in the pleural cavity, and when you exhale out back. In the closed SP amount of air at once penetrated the pleura, then remains stable. Finally, if the air with every breath is sucked into the pleural cavity, but when you exhale out of it comes out, the AP called valves. This usually happens when P. internal IP, but occurs at outside.
Any penetrating wound of the chest accompanied by entering the pleural cavity Read more [...]
Surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis occupies an important place in the treatment. It includes methods collapsotherapy, at which the spadenie affected the lungs, so that the conditions for the return and remitting the development of tuberculosis, and methods of radical surgical effects.
Use the following method collapsotherapy: artificial pneumothorax (see) with corrective thoracocautery (see), pneumoperitoneum (see), extrapleural pnevmoliz (see), extrapleural thoracoplasty (see). At present, due to the success of chemotherapy, pneumothorax imposed in some cases on a strictly individual Read more [...]
This form represents the final stage of development of the various earlier forms of tuberculosis of the lungs and is characterized by cavities with marked fibrous capsule, the inner layer of caseous-purulent and widespread lung damage. Since the formation of fibro-cavernous forms usually precedes a long course of the disease with a number of flares and remissions, the picture of lung disease is very diverse. It is always pronounced fibrosis lung tissue, along with those that may occur pneumonic foci in various phases of development (Fig. 8). Rare are the specific lesions of larynx and intestines. Read more [...]
Fig. 7. Cavernous tuberculosis.
Cavernous tuberculosis called relatively recent form of tuberculosis shaped cavity (see). Surrounding lung tissue hardly changed (Fig. 7).
Cavernous tuberculosis patients to be long-term treatment with antibiotics. In the absence of the effect of chemotherapy after surgery is indicated, which may often be limited segment resection or removal of one lobe of the lung.
Segmental (Segmental resection) - removal segment of the lung. Anatomical studies have shown that segment is a self-broncho-vascular unit, so removing it. Indications for removal are isolated segmental cavity bounded by tuberculous lesions, limited suppurative processes, benign tumors, cysts of the lung. I. Kolesnikov to remove any segment recommends anterolateral access, NI Gerasimenko - lateral and posterolateral access in order to remove the apical segments of the upper lobe, the upper segment of the lower lobe and basal segments.
First isolated, ligated and cross the segmental artery, then Read more [...]
Persons who have had surgery on the main veins in connection with varicose or thrombotic disease, also need for the rehabilitation stage in a differentiated application of radon or sulfide mineral baths, sea or river bathing in combination (depending on the state of blood circulation and trophic tissue) with the physical and therapeutic factors . These rehabilitation measures especially important if the patients had indurativnyy-ulcerative stage of chronic venous insufficiency, venous return as the recovery is not yet eliminate infiltrative and especially degenerative process in the distal extremities. Read more [...]
In most cases, dry pleurisy is a consequence of tuberculosis, especially when it occurs, as it were on their own, primarily. In a minority of cases dry pleurisy occurs in pneumonia of different etiologies, abscesses and gangrene of lung, pericardium, rheumatic disease, pulmonary infarction, lung tumors, trauma of the chest wall and lungs, general and local cooling, etc. L. Mecl (1965) Showed that the incidence of disease in people with pleurisy physical labor and highly skilled athletes the same. However, recovery and functional recovery in athletes are faster. The author based on his clinical Read more [...]