This question has not been studied. We can assume that like other marmots, abrupt changes in abundance there. However, fluctuations in the intensity of reproduction (see "Reproduction"), especially in the lower zone habitat, this Groundhog undoubtedly exist. They are due, probably, drought and low fatness females, which causes a change in the age composition of the population. Natural disasters and disease were observed. The basic factor that reduces the number of marmots Marmot, unordered fishing.
Practical value. Marmot Marmot - a valuable fur. However, the value of the skins Read more [...]
Chipmunk - Small animal, the body length of 13-18 cm, the tail is about 10 cm The coat has a special color - on the back of a reddish-yellow or reddish-gray, with five black longitudinal stripes on the casings - light gray.
Chipmunks are found in the forest areas of the Far East (except Kamchatka), Siberia, the Urals and north-east of the European part of the USSR. Outside the USSR, chipmunks are found in China and Mongolia.
Chipmunks live in forests, shrubs on forest edges and in river valleys. Settle in holes dug in the grass, under fallen trees, their roots and stumps. They feed during Read more [...]
Description. Marmots, including marmot, are among the largest representatives of the squirrel family. Their body fat, clumsy, resting on short, strong legs. The head is large, flat, with a few notable auricles, short neck. From other marmot marmot is easy to distinguish the short-tail, low and very dense fur, as well as uniform sandy-yellow color. The admixture of black hair back is covered brownish or blackish smooth ripples, the gathering at the neck and at the top of the head. Cheeks and sides of the neck svetloryzhevatye. The lower body and legs ocher-yellow color. End of the tail dark Read more [...]
Voice gray marmot is most similar to that of marmot. The usual cry (in human form) dvuslozhen and sounds like a high resounding "kupyk-kupyk" audible in the mountains, RP Zimin (1953), at a distance of 500-700 m Expressing displeasure gray marmot emits a high, somewhat nasal sound like the cry of crows. When anger (eg protected) it is similar to a dog growls when shrill screams of pain (like a pig), caressing the person or wanting to get food, animal often quietly cackles "Ko-Ko-Ko-Ko", waving with tail up . With the sudden imminent danger (noting the dog, fox, etc.) makes Read more [...]
Sex and age composition of the population. Of 157 marmots, caught in the mountains Karzhantau throughout the active season of their lives, there were 57 adults (36.3%), semi-mature than two years old, 22 (14%), over one year - 21 (13.3%) and profit - 57.3 (36.3%).
According Yanushko PA (1951), 42 of them captured marmots 27 (64.3%) were adults, seven (16.6%), semi-mature and eight (19%) profit. However, marmots, assigned them to a group of semi-mature, according to the weight and size, are actually profit. If so, then the young marmots not eight, and 15, or 35.7%, the same as on our data. Read more [...]
Behavior (habits). In early spring, even in the lower zone of the mountains, many animals come out of hibernation after punching a high (1-3 m) snow. On the western, eastern, and especially on the northern slopes at this time are more solid snow fields, against which darken bare outcrops, rock piles so large blocks - Corum. On the southern slopes at the time a lot (up to one-third of the area), thawed and some holes are already free from snow. The first one and a half weeks after hibernation marmots are relatively few active. Appearing in the morning hours, about 10, they mostly sit on the Read more [...]
Outside of Kazakhstan in the north lazybones was common in the steppes of Trans-Urals. Currently, he remained there only isolated settlements in the southern part of the Chelyabinsk region - Bredin-Soviet, Kizilskoe, Poltava, and Varmenskom Kuyurgazinskom areas (Schwartz, Peacock, Daniel, 1951). In this Kustanai region animal found in the northern regions - Fedorov, Mendygarin-Soviet and Presnogorkovskaya (Sludsky, 1939 Tkachenko, 1959). In the North-Kazakhstan region it is found in the area Presnovskom (Tkachenko, 1959). Next, the northern boundary of its distribution goes to the lake. Selety-Tentiz Read more [...]
Data on hibernating marmots marmot is very small (Yanushko, 1951, Petrov, 1960, 1961; Kapitonov and Lobachevsky, 1964) and have not dug any holes with the sleeping animal.
Preparing for hibernation begins essentially with the accumulation of fat, referred to above, and the workpiece nest lining. Harvesting period occurs from mid - late July and continues until hibernation, but there is a very non-intensive. Killing the hole one tuft of grass, animal never went for the second, and went to feed or rest. Only after a long time (hours or more) along the way he seems to be attributed a second Read more [...]
In the mountains of Kyzyl-paradise, and Temirshi Koshubay (Kazakh uplands) surki first appear from holes in the second half of March, the bulk - April 6-7, and the last - April 14 (Afanasyev, 1947 survey data). Some animals come out of the holes, punching solid snow, and in the mass - with the advent of the first green on thawed. Adults surki up from hibernation long before the exit holes, and young - before the exit. This set A. Afanasyev April 3 at digging holes with unopened marmots.
With the advent of green on thawed surki hard feed. In June, July and in early August behavior surkov Read more [...]
In the north (Kazakhstan) of the range groundhog marmot lives only in the subalpine and alpine zones at an altitude of 2100-3300 m above sea level. m It is like most "alpine" among Central Asian marmots, but generally inhabit very diverse habitats, from rarefied creeping juniper bushes and thickets of high umbrella plant habitat in the lower zone to almost lifeless blocky talus glacial cirques.
The most favorable areas for habitat marmot mountains with rounded relief and at the same time with a distinct mesorelief. Here, in most places, there is a thick layer of fine material of Read more [...]
In ex. Virgin territory in marmot found rikketsni Burnet (Karulina, 1961 b). There is speculation that a few centuries ago, when lazybones was widely distributed in the steppes of Europe, there are natural foci of plague (Gromov et al, 1965). In Northern and Central Kazakhstan marmot plague disease were detected.
In the spring of 1959 in the south of the lakes Tselinograd mass mortality water rats (probably from tularemia). In this same period of the lake. Shoindykul neranenyh found two well-fed, the recently dead marmot. The cause of death is the same as that of the rat, as such we will Read more [...]
Marmot-lazybones is found in the steppe regions of Northern Kazakhstan, Ural, Volga, some areas in the Don and the Ukraine. Marmot fur color-Baibakov sandy yellow, with a reddish tinge on the casings.
Until the end of the XVIII century. these rodents were carried out in large numbers on the virgin lands of the southern regions of the country, with the plowing of the steppes steppe marmots gradually disappeared. In 1936, the 100-Baibakov marmots were caught in Streletskoe steppe (in the Central Chernozem Reserve, 20 km south of Kursk) and released in Luhansk oblastts Derkul steppes, and later Read more [...]
In the lower zone habitat in the northern slope of the central part of the Kyrgyz range (1200-1300 m above sea level. m) Long- marmot out of the norm after hibernation in mid-March (Kuznetsov, 1948). At this time, still a lot of snow and animals in the first week - and a half little active. At sea level. Most Shirkotiya (lowlands Kalinin district of Kyrgyzstan near the border with Kazakhstan) Woodchucks in 1941 to 25 March was little activity, although it was eating food, as evidenced by their fresh droppings around burrows. March 30, these animals were fed for quite some time in the bush Read more [...]
Dining gray marmot in general, but especially in the territory of Kazakhstan, not enough is known (Korzinkina, 1935 Aizin, 1943 Afanasyev, 1947 Zimin, 1953, Ricks, 1956).
In the Kazakh uplands (mountains Koshubay, Temirshi, watches), according to the analysis of 40 digestive tracts and eating marmots, collected by us in the places of their feeding at the height of 1000-1300 m above sea level. m (all data end of June - beginning of July), is characterized by eating their food almost exclusively succulent herbs, with a predominance of legumes (Kapitonov, 1967 c). The bulk of the stomach contents Read more [...]
Status. View, the state is due to the measures taken or because of natural population trends is safe, but is not subject to industrial application and for its populations requires constant monitoring.
Distribution. At the beginning of XX century. was widely distributed in most of the steppe zone. The range extends from Podolia in the west to the left bank of the Irtysh in the east. By the middle of the last century due to plowing of virgin lands and unregulated fishing area was divided into separate isolated settlements that are confined to the "inconvenient" land and protected conservation Read more [...]
In the spring and early summer tailed marmot quite agile and often makes dash of holes to the hole at a distance of 100-150 m He usually moves leisurely heavy gallop, waving to the beat jump curved tail. 20-30 feet, he makes a stop, looking around and getting up, sometimes (especially in the high grass) stands on its hind legs. Animal pretty easy to mount the high, almost vertical, boulders, clutching claws small bumps rock climbs on sloping juniper trunks to a height of 2-2.5 m examines how the neighborhood. By G. Kaiser (1939), animal free jump creeks wide 100-130 see
When two marmots (May Read more [...]
In the Kazakh upland habitats Groundhog diverse. In the Central Highlands in the mountains and Te Koshubay mirshi marmots, from the height of about 1000 m found everywhere from the flat, sometimes broad and wavy, valley bottoms to steep (50 °), rocky slopes and cliffs near the trap crest of the mountains, but mostly at the bottom of shallow and moderately steep (10 - 30 °) slopes predominantly northern, Western, Eastern and Southern rarely displays (Figure 80). Ground melkozemlisty rarely (only in some places in the bottoms of the valleys) and is usually very rocky, often almost entirely consists Read more [...]
It is believed that tailed marmot Kazakhstan dwells in the Kyrgyz and Talas Alatau (Kuznetsov, 1948, etc.), but more specific information is only for the latter. By LM Shulpina (1948), the groundhog is widely distributed in the Aksu-Zhabagly, at the junction of the Talas Alatau Ugam ridge. However, in his years (1933-1935 gg.) Marmots there were extremely rare, as they are few in number and are now (1961 -1962 years. - Our observations). According to survey data (Shul'pin, 1948), marmots in the reserve were considered numerous in 1926, they allegedly lived everywhere and large settlements, Read more [...]