A man can distinguish molecules, similar in shape but different in the quantum characteristics, but can this be considered a proof that our sense of smell relies on quantum effects?Not long ago we reported on the fact that the magnetic compass in birds can work with quantum effects. However, this is not the only case where the biological systems are suspected of active use of quantum mechanics. Scientists at the Biomedical Research Center. Alexander Fleming (Greece) published in a web journal PLoS ONE article, which suggests that the ability to distinguish one from the other smells also based Read more [...]
Genome of plants and animals - is not new. However, there is a caveat - this process will take a lot of the body's cells - thousands and millions - after deciphering which scientists are generalized, and therefore, inaccurate views of the genome. Judge the changes in the DNA of individual cells can result. Harvard scientists have found a new way to decode the genome of the individual cells, according to an article on the website Nature.
To do this, first get multiple copies of DNA. Existing methods, including using the polymerase chain reaction, are imperfect. They lead to the fact that Read more [...]
Tetrahedron in the structure of water. A water molecule is shown hinge model, and neighboring atoms forming hydrogen bonds - in the form of clouds of electrons.Scientists conducted a simulation of the behavior of the hydrogen bonds in water, and found that in spite of the recently discovered fluctuations, the structure can still be tetrahedral. The paper was published in the journal Nature Communication, and its website a summary of results Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz.Tetrahedral local structure of water has been proposed over 100 years ago. It implies a connection to each of the Read more [...]
A hypothesis to explain how the very first DNA molecule can replicate in the oceans. Until now it was thought that this was impossible, because the huge volume of water bound DNA will be diluted. According to modern concepts, the first molecule, which subsequently gave rise to living organisms, are DNA or RNA. These molecules have the ability to copy (future reproduction) and gradual changes (mutation process). One of the cornerstones of hypotheses to explain the very early stages of the evolution of these molecules, is an explanation of how and where they could have been synthesized and Read more [...]
Cerebrosides - A group of compounds belonging to the complex fats (glycolipids), the hydrolysis fall into sphingosine, galactose and glucose, and a fatty acid residue. Cerebrosides found in large quantities in the brain, particularly in the white matter of the brain and myelinated nerve fibers.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrosides in the body and their appearance in large quantities in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes associated with certain diseases of the nervous system - the so-called neyrolipoidozami.
Cerebrosides - Substances belonging to the group consisting of lipids and Read more [...]
The ramifications of degenerate branching reactions are such that the effectiveness of the intervention in their flow is highly dependent on the time of intervention. On the exponential stage of the process to achieve the effect of braking, you need to enter a lot of material-inhibitor (from Latin inhibitio - braking). In the induction period is enough to the smallest of the inhibitor to prevent the yield of the reaction in the exponential phase. That is exactly what are phenolic antioxidants.
But it is well known that the interaction of the radical with a neutral molecule, a new molecule and Read more [...]
Polysaccharides - a high optically active carbohydrates (molecular weight from a few thousand to a million), the molecules of which consist of monosaccharide residues (see). It is colorless, amorphous materials, most of which can easily swell in water to form viscous colloidal solutions. Polysaccharides are widely distributed in nature (the most common is cellulose - a component of wood). Starch and other polysaccharides produced in plants during photosynthesis. By acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides break down into simple sugars - monosaccharides.
In living organisms are energy Read more [...]
In 1944, Tilly and his colleagues found that some cultures filtrates of streptococci are able to dissolve clots coagulated human blood. Active factor here is lizokinaza, received later the name streptokinase. It does not act directly on fibrin, and converts inert proaktivator contained in the blood, the active ingredient, which then activates plasminogen, turning it into plasmin.
According to Robbins and his staff, the plasminogen molecule consists of only a single polypeptide chain, in which the N-terminus is lysine, and a C-terminal - asparagine. Activation of this molecule urokinase leads Read more [...]
Esters - are organic being produced during the weaning the water molecule from of two of the alcohol molecules (simple esters) Or from the molecule of alcohol and a an acid molecule (complicated esters - Esther). Ethers are volatile, are poorly soluble in water, good dissolved fats. Some of them find application in medicine, for example diethyl, or sulfury, the ether apply the for an inhalation narcosis (see Ethyl ether).
The esters are part of the of essential oils, conditioning their pleasant smell of, are applied in the food and perfume industry. To the ester belong many biologically important Read more [...]
Sensitizing properties of substances depend on their chemical structure. Substances of similar chemical structure may have dissimilar antigenic properties, depending on the location of specific chemical groups.
For example, among animal protein, serum albumin, globulin, ovalbumin, enzymes have distinct antigenic properties as gelatin, casein, fibrinogen - very weak. Protein extracts of worms - tapeworm, roundworm, filarial, flat worms - have extremely strong antigenic properties, as well as a number of bacterial proteins and toxins. Vegetable proteins (gluten, castor) also are potent antigens Read more [...]