The true structure of the Earth

There are places on earth, covered with legends, speculation and predictions. Anomalous zones. And the map of these zones, twelve zones, among which the famous Bermuda Triangle, Kailash in Tibet, both poles, and others, have long made up. Form these areas, famous in the first place, magnetic anomalies, strange, icosahedron. And not surprisingly, many ocean ridges and other seals, go along the edges of the dodecahedron, in addition to this icosahedron. At points close to the vertices of an icosahedron, gravity is reduced, and where does the dodecahedron edges - is raised. Has the properties Read more [...]
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Synonym chronic limfadenoz) is characterized by overgrowth of the lymph tissue replaces the normal bone marrow hemopoiesis, with peripheral blood flooded with lymphocytes. The disease develops gradually. There is a moderate increase lymph nodes (palpation they are not very dense, mobile, painless), spleen and liver. The blood in this period show a general increase in the number of white blood cells and lymphocyte counts. Gradually, the disease progresses - increasing weakness, sweating, often fever, lymph nodes significantly increased. Increase them in the mediastinum Read more [...]
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Felinoz

Felinoz (Synonym: good limforetikulez, cat scratch disease) - is an infectious disease characterized by low contagiousness, characterized by lesions of the lymph nodes. Felinoza pathogen - a virus. Cats are carriers of, human infection can occur from scratches, bites, contamination of skin secretions of cats. In place of introduction of the virus (scratch, bite) occurs swelling soreness. The incubation period - 3-63 days. The disease begins with a pronounced swelling lymph nodes, their sharp pain, chills, headache, muscle aches and joint pain. High temperatures observed for 5-9 days, then reduced Read more [...]
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Tuberculous intoxication bronchial tuberculosis

Pulmonary tuberculosis in children is now relatively rare. Pathological changes are more often observed in the form of hyperplasia, ie, a small increase in peripheral lymph nodes, and tracheobronchial and mesenteric less. Clinically, pulmonary tuberculosis in children observed weight loss, poor appetite, fatigue, low-grade fever, functional disorders. This condition is called tuberculous intoxication and treat major anti-TB drugs (tubazid and PAS) is relatively short courses. With the defeat of bronchopulmonary lymph node TB granulation can germinate bronchial wall, and with cheesy bronhoadenite Read more [...]
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Tuberculosis of peripheral lymph nodes

The most commonly affected cervical lymph nodes (superficial and deep), somewhat less - axillary, sometimes simultaneously affects many groups of lymph nodes (generalized lymphadenitis). Most often, external tuberculous lymphadenitis occurs as a complication of primary tuberculosis lymphatic or hematogenous route of primary pulmonary complex. These lymphadenitis in 75% of cases are due to primary infection. However, they are also observed in the secondary period of tuberculosis as a flash of the old fire. According to the classification of NA Shmelev lymphadenitis allocate primary and secondary, Read more [...]
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Dissection own fascia and podfastsialnyh Education-2

Fig. 5. Longitudinal section through the armpit. 1 - the neurovascular bundle, 2 - fiber axilla, 3 - fascia muscle; 4 - fascia axillaris; 5 - fascia clavipectoralis; 6 - fascia pectoralis. Fascia cut through the middle of the width of the axillary cavity and otpreparovyvayut longitudinal cut to the front and rear boundaries of the region, without passing them (Fig. 5). Separation from the underlying fascia fat pad performing axillary basin, meets with difficulties, as fascia closely connected with it. Therefore, the separation of the fascia should be much delay and dissect, strictly adhering Read more [...]
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Pathogenesis and pathology of tularemia

The causative agent of tularemia enters the body through the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract. Infection is possible through small abrasions, cuts, scrapes, and even if they appear to unbroken skin. By lymphatic agent falls into different organs, where they form the inflammatory infiltrates (granulomas) and necrotic foci. Granuloma is at the center of epithelioid cells on the periphery of lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and plasma cells undergoing further degeneration, necrosis and decay. Accordingly entrance gate on the skin appear Read more [...]
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Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis (Synonym disease Berman) - a fungal disease that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogen - fungi Sporotrichum, live in the soil and on plants. In the human pathogen penetrates through broken skin (injections spines, thorns plants, straw), mucous membrane, as well as food, water, and dust. Cases of human infection from patients with sporotrichosis animals (especially rats). Most suffer from the rural areas. Fig. 1. Sporotrihozny chancre.When the localized form of the fungus on the place of introduction, usually on the hands and fingers, there are bumps density elastic Read more [...]
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Radioisotope method for studying the lymphatic system

Radioisotope method for studying the lymphatic system used to study the functional state of the lymphatic vessels. (Resorption and lymph flow, barrier function) and to detect lymph node tumors. Typically use radioactive isotopes in the form of colloidal solutions (see Radioactive drugs) that are able to be absorbed into the lymph capillaries. Increasingly using radioactive colloidal gold (Au198) And plasma proteins labeled J131. These substances are generally administered interstitial, then: a) monitor the decrease in the radioactivity in the area of administration, and b) register the appearance, Read more [...]
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Radiographic changes with chlamydia

With chlamydia radiographic changes in the organs of the chest depends on the degree of involvement in the hilar lymph nodes, lung parenchyma and pleura. Defeat often caused by lung tissue lymphogranulomatous germination of intrathoracic lymph nodes, rarely hotbeds of granuloma formation in the lungs. Radiographic lesions of the lung can be expressed: 1) a uniform shade, increasing with the progression of the disease (Fig. 4 and 5); 2) mottled shades of various sizes and shapes, and 3) tyazhistymi harsh shadows caused by peribronchial and perivascular infiltration or lymphogranulomatous lymphangitis. Read more [...]
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Scintigraphy parasternal lymph nodes

Indirect scintigraphy parasternal lymph collectors in recent years is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of lymphatic spread of breast cancer, since the direct administration of the isotope in parasternal lymph vessels impossible, and brandy through the skin of the breast is not possible. Specially made in our clinic study (Dymarsky L. Yu, N. Fadeev, 1976) demonstrated the possibility of using this technique to image not only the parasternal, and axillary (and even supraclavicular) nodes on both sides. Technology research. 100-150 mCi colloidal 198Au, diluted with 0.5% novocaine solution Read more [...]
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Symptoms and course of gastric cancer-3

Metastasized to distant lymph nodes usually do not cause the patient any symptoms and do not attract his attention. As a rule, patient does not know about them, and seek their physician should carefully examine the condition of the available palpation lymphatic system, especially on the neck. With the development of metastatic disease in the lymph node, it increases in size, becomes solid, significantly differentiates it from normal nodes. Initially, he is mobile, but as the fuses with the surrounding formations and gradually towards them becoming immobile. Metastatic nodes can be single or Read more [...]
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Superradical mastectomy

Superradical mastectomy provide not only single and Crankcase Heater (ie separation surgery in two stages) removal of the breast with regional lymph collectors axillary-subclavian-parasternal area, but also the inclusion in the zone of operation and even supraclavicular paratracheal, tracheobronchial lymph nodes with fiber mediastinal . The severity and complexity of these interventions require technical training and a special selection of patients. This limited the holding of such operations only in private clinics profiled. At the same time, if the axillary lymph nodes, and in some patients Read more [...]
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Growth and expansion of primary breast cancer-3

1. On the way to the axillary lymph nodes anterior thoracic and through the armpit, and sometimes through the subclavian to the supraclavicular nodes. However, a strict sequence confluence of lymphatic vessels in certain groups of axillary nodes is not, so they are not metastases differs a landmark. Axillary header contains an average of 10-25 knots, although some researchers have found up to 75 nodes arranged in the front, rear and center (along the subclavian vein) groups. Axillary nodes, which are the first barrier to tumor cells and systems, together with the shock lymph centrifugal rushing Read more [...]
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Growth and expansion of primary breast cancer-1

4. By mediastinal way, apparently, is closely associated with the parasternal collector. Thus diverting vessels sent either directly from parasternal nodes, and pass them on the chest wall perforating vessels intercostal spaces to the thymus, and peribronchial tracheobronchial nodes (Seleznev IK). 5. On the way to the intercostal parasternal nodes and pleura or intercostal vessels to the posterior intercostal group of nodes. This way spread metastases difficult to consider when planning treatment, but it is important because the so-called posterior intercostal nodes directly adjacent to the Read more [...]
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Clasmocytoma

Clasmocytoma - Malignant neoplasm originating from lymphoreticular tissue and consisting of a large, poorly differentiated reticular cells, which are gradually replacing tissue lymph nodes. Sarcoma, which develops from undifferentiated reticular cells, similar to the lymphoid, termed "lymphosarcoma." At present, these sarcomas referred to retikulosarkome. The term "lymphosarcoma" out of use. The duration of the disease in about 3 years, men get sick more often. Affected lymph nodes in the neck, armpit, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and soft tissue, skin, abdominal organs, Read more [...]
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Advanced sectoral resection

Advanced sectoral resection (Removal of the sector in one block with axillary fiber) followed by irradiation of the breast and the area of regional collectors in recent years have been used widely as an alternative to radical operations (Veronesi et al., 1977). Aiming for cosmetic results, the notion of significant performance followed by radiation therapy, is able to kill any remaining tumor in the wound elements, though unlikely to be sufficient as possible counterarguments multicentric primary cancer and high susceptibility of metastatic axillary-subclavian nodes are hard to reach muscles and Read more [...]
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Biopsy and excision of nodes for histology

In recent years, these techniques have become part of the arsenal of diagnostic measures to clarify the lymphatic spread of the tumor. The value of lymph node aspiration is not in doubt, especially when considering the defeat supraclavicular node metastases, as the increase of nodes apparent metastatic lesions on palpation, often associated with inflammatory changes caused by edema or after irradiation. Equally important is the cytological diagnosis in isolated axillary nodes without increasing the defined tumor nodule in the breast. In these cases, the differentiation between the "occult" Read more [...]
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Direct lymphography

In 1960, Kaindl et al. first described the method of direct staining of lymph nodes iodides oil preparations. BL Lukyanenko (1963) simplified and for the first time in the Soviet Union used this method in order to preoperative diagnosis of metastases in the axillary, subclavian, and even supraclavicular nodes. According to AP Bazhenova Ostrovtseva and LD (1977), a direct contrast lymphography allows 85% of the state to evaluate axillary lymph node area. Technology research. After fixation of the upper limb in the horizontal position of the patient and treated cover the skin and subcutaneous Read more [...]
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Pnevmoaksillografiya

Much more informative with primary breast cancer aksillografiya gas or pnevmoaksillografiya, proposed in the Soviet Union Nikolai Brazhnikov Lindenbratenom and LD (1965) and improved Redon et al. (1969). In our clinic technique to study further simplified IK Seleznev. Technology research. The patient was placed on its side. The hand on the target side should be under his head so that contoured the latissimus dorsi, which is a landmark. After local anesthesia, 0.25% solution of novocaine skin and subcutaneous tissue at the level III-IV rib and thick needle with a syringe Janet, which is connected Read more [...]
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