One of the postoperative complications are secondary defects palatoplasty sky that come in various shapes, size and location and cause of suffering patients, similar to those that cause congenital cleft. Remain impaired speech function, breathing and eating. Correct such defects are often more difficult to produce than primary surgery for congenital cleft. Therefore, in determining the plan of surgical treatment of secondary defects sky should take into account their size, shape and location.
We observed 30 people between the ages of 5 to 30 years with secondary defects in the sky. In all patients, Read more [...]
To characterize the physical development along with anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, chest circumference) in surveys typically include data and visual inspection - development muscle, fat deposition, form of the spine and rib cage, a form of the legs and feet (AP Stavitskaya DI Aron, 1959 AG Zeitlin, 1963).
Violation of muscle balance in the maxillo-facial region at various malocclusions, particularly in cases of congenital cleft lip and palate associated with impaired nasal breathing, affects the formation of the facial skeleton, development and tone muscles in the neck. As a result Read more [...]
On the physical development of children can be seen not only as somatometric somatoskopicheskih and signs, but some indicators hemogram.
The purpose of this study - the study of physical development and maintenance of hemoglobin in children under 1 year old with congenital cleft lip and palate.
A total of 98 children. There were 55 boys and girls - 43. The 24 people were isolated cleft lip, 67 - combined cleft lip and palate, and 7 - isolated cleft palate.
Physical development children born with cleft lip and palate was determined according to the anthropometric measurements (height, weight, Read more [...]
One of the important problems in the complex treatment of patients with congenital cleft lip and palate is to prevent and eliminate strains maxillofacial region. If before the main task was considered restoring integrity of the upper lip and palate, it is now considered the need to remove and related strains.
Much attention has been paid to this issue in the last two decades. A number of papers on the nature of deformation maxillofacial region in children with congenital cleft lip and palate.
However, to date there is no consensus in the assessment of causes of the deformity. There is an assumption Read more [...]
Currently, there is no consensus about the origin of the different strains of the upper jaw in the late periods after operations performed in patients aged 15 years and 3-5-7-10-12.
LI Sergeeva (1950), AP Biezin, IP Bakulis, Yu Braytsis (1964), VS Dmitrieva, RL Lando (1968) and other authors have suggested that the deformation of the upper jaw is not only a consequence of the operation in the sky, but can occur even without surgical intervention.
Analysis of multiple observations of domestic and foreign authors showed that the data on the timing and extent of surgery of the upper jaw deformities Read more [...]
Pharyngoscope - Examination of the pharynx is in artificial light. When pharyngoscope left hand crush spatula front two thirds of the tongue down and in front, the patient in this time should not hold their breath, for the determination of the mobility of the soft palate, the patient should pronounce the sound "a". In time pharyngoscope can see the tongue, tonsils, back of the throat. To identify gaps in the tonsils pathological content is pulled in the direction of the front handle of the soft palate with a blunt hook (Kulikovsky, Schmidt), or jam on the upper pole of the tonsils Read more [...]
Mouth, oral cavity topographically divided into so-called threshold of the mouth and oral cavity proper (Fig.). The term "mouth" refers to the mouth opening also concluded lipped mouth. The boundaries of the arches of the mouth are the front lips and cheeks, and the rear of the alveolar processes of jaws and teeth. The oral cavity is limited to the top arch of the hard palate, floor of the mouth basis of oral and sublingual muscle with placed on it genioglossal, mentohyoid, sublingual-speaking muscles. Rear boundary is presented oral soft palate during muscle contraction is a hole Read more [...]
Sky - anatomical formation, separating the mouth from the nasal cavity and consists of two parts - the hard palate and the soft palate.
The hard palate is formed by the palatine processes of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone. The mucous membrane covering the bone formation, backward passes to soft palate, which is composed of muscle and fibrous framework. Rear edge of the soft palate has a ledge - tongue. On the sides soft palate continues in the bow, going over the edge of the tongue and lateral pharyngeal wall. Muscular system of the soft palate produces complex movements Read more [...]
Swallow - Physiological act of providing food and non-passage of substances from the oral cavity esophagus. Swallow is complex unconditioned reflexes (see). For it must be irritation of mucous membrane receptors of the soft palate and pharynx. Excitation of receptors on afferent pathways (in the trigeminal, language-pharyngeal and vagus nerve) enters the medulla, which is the center of swallowing. Hence, by the efferent pathways (in the trigeminal, hypoglossal and vagus nerves) stimulation reaches the muscles of the mouth, palate, pharynx, tongue, larynx and esophagus, causing their decline. Read more [...]
Fig. 8. Soft palate and tonsils. 1 - palatine amygdala; 2 - the hard palate; 3 - front bow of the soft palate; 4 - back bow of the soft palate.
Since passes through the pharynx food, and the air, as part of which can often be harmful microbes, here, in the way of flow, there is a large accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the form of so-called tonsillectomy implementing protective. This is sort of checkpoint body. The largest tonsils are located between the temples of the soft palate - the palatine tonsils (Fig. 8). Everyone can easily see them. With the passage of food and air through the Read more [...]
Sky (palatum) forms the upper wall of the oral cavity and consists of the hard palate (palatum durum) and soft palate (palatum molle).
The hard palate is presented palatine processes of the maxillary bones and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones, which are connected by joints. The shape of the hard palate may be different, but in general it looks like a dome plate, which is covered with a mucous membrane. Behind the incisors on each side of the median suture mucosa shell forms a 2.5 transverse bars. In the incisal holes sometimes found thickening of the mucous membrane - Read more [...]
Ingestion - complex act coordinated activity of muscles jaw apparatus, soft palate and esophagus, taking place with the participation of the nuclei of the medulla oblongata and the cerebral cortex. An adult at the time of the passage of food bolus inhibited act of inspiration. Swallowing occurs when the excitatory receptors soft palate and especially the tongue, which is a kind of receptor body that touches the food bolus. In the case of swelling of the mucous membrane receptors or anesthesia of the soft palate and uvula swallowing act is violated.
In the process of chewing is soaking saliva Read more [...]