Scintigraphy parasternal lymph nodes

Indirect scintigraphy parasternal lymph collectors in recent years is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of lymphatic spread of breast cancer, since the direct administration of the isotope in parasternal lymph vessels impossible, and brandy through the skin of the breast is not possible. Specially made in our clinic study (Dymarsky L. Yu, N. Fadeev, 1976) demonstrated the possibility of using this technique to image not only the parasternal, and axillary (and even supraclavicular) nodes on both sides. Technology research. 100-150 mCi colloidal 198Au, diluted with 0.5% novocaine solution Read more [...]
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Growth and expansion of primary breast cancer-3

1. On the way to the axillary lymph nodes anterior thoracic and through the armpit, and sometimes through the subclavian to the supraclavicular nodes. However, a strict sequence confluence of lymphatic vessels in certain groups of axillary nodes is not, so they are not metastases differs a landmark. Axillary header contains an average of 10-25 knots, although some researchers have found up to 75 nodes arranged in the front, rear and center (along the subclavian vein) groups. Axillary nodes, which are the first barrier to tumor cells and systems, together with the shock lymph centrifugal rushing Read more [...]
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Biopsy and excision of nodes for histology

In recent years, these techniques have become part of the arsenal of diagnostic measures to clarify the lymphatic spread of the tumor. The value of lymph node aspiration is not in doubt, especially when considering the defeat supraclavicular node metastases, as the increase of nodes apparent metastatic lesions on palpation, often associated with inflammatory changes caused by edema or after irradiation. Equally important is the cytological diagnosis in isolated axillary nodes without increasing the defined tumor nodule in the breast. In these cases, the differentiation between the "occult" Read more [...]
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Pathological radiological anatomy internal thoracic veins

The study is to identify the three radiological signs and their combinations:]) break stroke vein at the level of one of the intercostal spaces ("amputation") or a blank confluence (Fig. 22), and 2) the local narrowing its lumen or regional buckling walls, and 3) deviation (deviation) course veins without significant change in the width of the lumen. Block, or amputation, the veins - the most reliable sign parasternal metastatic nodes - is more common at the first and second intercostal space. Often, along with ablation can detect varicose veins in the lower (substenoticheskaya dilation) Read more [...]
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Biological and anatomical characteristics of the primary tumor-2

Localization of the tumor in the breast is important not only when the direction of the cut in time mastectomy and study of surgical intervention, but when planning preoperative and postoperative irradiation. For example, the localization of cancer in axillary breast appendage makes resort to the section, providing for the removal of the skin in the armpit, and the location of the primary tumor in the center of the gland is sometimes forced to operate out of quadrangular section. The tumor in the medial and central quadrants of the breast, as already noted, metastasis can occur directly in the Read more [...]
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