"Vaska Pavlov said that his young vyzhlachok began work. I invite you to listen. Maybe Congress? "- Vladimir Konstantinovich Romanov, the oldest member of our hunting us, looked at us quizzically. VN Pavlov at ringside judges Russian hounds. Assist BI Sergeev and N. Krasheninnikov. Next Saturday we were in Siverskaya. There's a large military airfield in those years served as Major Vasiliy Pavlov. We got back in the deep darkness. Vasiliy with Rogdai leash long led us through some fields and woods, and finally, we entered of tall fir trees. Here he threw his young vyzhlachka. Have Read more [...]
(1863 g.Bozhy fishing in Lankaran. Baku lips. 1958, Moscow), a metallurgical engineer, Corr. Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1927), Acad. (1932). In 1885 he graduated from St. Petersburg. Mining Institute, worked as an engineer on meth. z-dah Omutninsky mountain env. Vyatka Province. In the early years. the practical activities carried out reconstruction of the blast and puddling furnaces and Kirsinsky Klimkovsky s-dah. In 1890 he traveled to the U. to study the sea level. charcoal-metallurgy. Visited Seversky, Ufaley, Yuryuzansky, Kushvinsky, Nizhny Tagil, Zlatoust, Upper Iset, Read more [...]
Exterior mag, Border 1995Dr. Pavlov, I Assume?In a humans that's passing to the hogs, this piddling Shoat leave let none of it.By Steamy Wayne WhitenessThither was practically to urge the rainforest glide of northeasterly Australia, many curios and recreations -- colossus crocs, coral reefs, and tree-climbing kangaroos among them -- but for the bit my care was devoted to the issue impending, videlicet, the conditioning of Dr. Pavlov's dogs."Fit petty Read more [...]
June 28, 2013. As Pavlov volcano, and the volcano Veniaminov, located in Alaska, began to show signs of seismic activity a few weeks ago. All this time both of the volcano increased its internal capacity, and now watching them volcanologists say the increased eruptive activity.
From both craters of volcanoes in small portions started to flow on the surface of lava, ash cloud became more intense. In volcanic Observatory Peninsula Alaska believe that as Pavlov volcano, and its neighbor, the volcano Veniaminov, will continue to haunt the few people in the Northern state of his roar and underground Read more [...]
The main achievement of the 20th century physiology was the creation of Pavlov and his school of the theory of conditioned reflexes (see). Pavlov was first used by an objective method of the natural sciences to the study of mental activity and in the early 20th century, discovered that its basis is conditioned reflexes by the most sophisticated communications and balancing the body with the environment. Research in this area has led to the discovery of the basic laws of higher nervous activity, the creation of the theory of types of higher nervous activity (see), the two signaling systems, and Read more [...]
Pavlov was uncovered another significant feature concerning the mechanisms of human mental activity. In animals, even the most highly organized, psychic life becomes full emergence and interaction of simple associations between stimuli: smells, sounds, and other direct signals from various external objects. The totality of these associations Pavlov called the first signaling system.
The man alongside and in close connection with this system there is word, replaced directly signals and is a signal of the signals. Pavlov called it the second signal system. Speech feature is its general nature. Read more [...]
One hundred years ago, scientists thought that sleep - is a kind of food poisoning. During waking hours, as it was believed in the body accumulate some poisons, blood carries them to the brain, poisons it, sleep comes. During sleep poisons are destroyed, removed from the blood, and in the morning we again fresh and active. Have evidence to support this view, but they were the facts that in the end he denied (including observations of conjoined twins). Thus, in Moscow before the war saw a rare case of double malformation. Had two girls named Ira and Galey, who joined at the bottom of the body. Read more [...]
If the sensations and ideas of objects in the external world, teaching Pavlov, is for the first signals of human reality, then we - the second signal of this reality, the signals of the signals. These voice signals are present, according to Pavlov, a distraction from reality and can be generalized, which is specifically human higher thinking. Mental work of man is, according to Pavlov, the result of the activities of its second signaling system, acting in unity with the first signaling system.
The second signal system, acting in unity with the first, is subject to the same physiological laws, Read more [...]
The question arises as to what is the central nervous system primarily developed fatigue?
Observations of life, as well as studies conducted by many Soviet scientists suggest that the process begins with the fatigue of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex.
The reader, perhaps, observed the following, sometimes we still common perception phenomenon. After a day of work in a small room is going to a significant number of people - held regular classes. Poorly ventilated room, poorly lit. After half an hour - hour of already highly fatigue. If the classes in this small room are common, they soon strong Read more [...]
Excessive activity of nerve cells leads to a drop in its performance, fatigue. Greater fatigue of nerve cells, many scientists see it at wasting. For example, in one study of IR Prorokova showed that the frequent repetition of the conditioned reflexes are observed to fall. Such are the facts mentioned NA Podkopaev and a number of other researchers. Then it was shown that the replacement of one repetitive stimuli other eliminates this phenomenon (falling reflex). This work led to the fact that psychologists, characterizing fatigue were often use the term "exhaustion" (Folbart, Vereshchagin, Read more [...]
Work of Russian scientists Sechenov Vvedenskii and Pavlov showed that the basis of diverse human activities are neural processes - excitation and inhibition.
In 1863 he published a brilliant work of Sechenov "Reflexes of the Brain," in which, based on his experimental studies have proved the presence of the central nervous system during braking (on the excitation of the physiologists was already known), J. M . Sechenov developed the idea of the reflex, as a mechanism of any form of the highly developed organism.
Contrary to the views of the majority of foreign scientists, and in particular Read more [...]
Great importance in the fight against exhaustion have exercise and training. Exercise - this is one of the main conditions to increase productivity. Exercise improves efficiency and coordination of their activities. Exercise - the surest way to combat fatigue, as promote better regulation of functions, more economic activity of the body, greater persistence of its internal environment, increase its functionality. The same work at the trained person becomes less tedious and may take more than the untrained. We know what is the method of distribution engineer F. Kovalev. It consists of a comprehensive Read more [...]
One source of all kinds of superstitions are dreaming. Narrow-minded and superstitious ideas about dreams, unfortunately, is still widespread among the population of the globe.
Dreaming - the psychological source of some forms of spiritualism and mysticism.
Even Engels pointed to the dream as one of the sources of primitive animism.
Progress of scientific knowledge and the dissemination of their dreams gradually displace ignorant and mystical ideas.
We have attempted to present the system of our physiological understanding of dreams, based on modern physiology and pathology of higher nervous activity, Read more [...]
Hemispheric white matter consists of nerve fibers that connect different parts of the cerebral cortex with each other and with the departments that are under bark - subcortex.
Bark cerebral hemispheres of the human brain is a highly organized part of the central nervous system. In the cortex, is many times more nerve cells (in humans up to 14 billion) than in other parts of the central nervous system. Processes of these cells, elongated, would have amounted to several thousand kilometers. Cells in the cortex have different shape and size. Thus, the bark - The highest part of the central nervous Read more [...]
Pavlov found that the more sophisticated, subtle and precise adaptation of the organism to changing environmental conditions is achieved by reflexes acquired during the entire life of the animal.
These reflexes, which are different from the unconditional that depend on the specific environmental conditions and change as conditions change, Pavlov called the conditioned reflexes.
Numerous observations and experiments conducted in the laboratory of Paul showed great importance of conditioned reflexes.
In contrast to the unconditioned, innate reflexes conditioned reflexes are developed for individual Read more [...]
Numerous works of Pavlov and his students proved that all psychological activity, and the emergence and consolidation of conditioned reflexes are a single nervous process, encompassing the two opposite, but always linked processes.
When the body is responsible response to external stimulation, when it is the excitation of nerve tissue. Braking, on the contrary, as it restricts or cuts off the reaction, stopping excitement. If there was no braking, the excitement would spread throughout the nervous tissue, and then began to excitement, danger to health and even life. Equilibration with the environment Read more [...]
Severe for Russia were the years of the First World War. It is not easy at the time and had to scientists.
Many researchers, and indeed, Pavlov, for days in hospital, helping the sick and wounded. However, Pavlov and his many students to continue their scientific observations.
Often, a staff member of Pavlov on the phone asked the minister to prepare the laboratory animal for the experience. However, staying in the hospital, the staff would often come to the lab after a long delay. It has long been prepared for the experience of a dog stood in the straps was made drowsy and fell asleep. Probably Read more [...]
Most easily developed in dogs sleep in thermal effects as high (about 45 °), and low (around 0 °) temperature. In these experiments, the dream becomes literally a barrier to the study of higher nervous activity in animals, because they have all worked out before reflexes inhibited.
Summarizing the many observations of the development of sleep in experimental dogs, Pavlov came to bring out that natural sleep begins with the appearance of inhibition in the cortex brain, which then descends to the subcortical structures that regulate the function of internal organs and body systems. This theory Read more [...]
On this basis, the Italian scientist Mosso invented a special "bed-scales." Laying on the bed like a man Mosso watched it during sleep and sleep. He argued that this experiment allows us to determine the inflow or outflow of blood to the brain. According to his observations, when a man went to sleep, then allegedly outweighed that of the bed on which the feet, and when waking up - the one where the head. On this basis, Mosso has developed a theory that the dream comes as a result of anemia of the brain.
Mosso refuted the theory of sleep scientist Weber. He proved that the Changing Read more [...]
Sechenov studied central inhibition: inhibitory effect of thalamus in the brain when stimulated by reflex activities spinal nerves. These centers were later braking name "Sechenov centers." Studying the exchange of gases in the blood due to breathing, Sechenov found on the role of hemoglobin in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. These studies were the starting point for future studies of gas exchange in a low and high air pressure of modern aviation physiology and Medicine (oxygen supply of high-altitude flights), regulation of labor divers, miners, caisson workers and others Read more [...]