1950s in the U.S. were not so puritanical, as is commonly believed, comparing them to the sixties. And the reason for this was a new powerful tool for syphilis.Fashion on a risky, unconventional sexual relationship, marked a turning sixties, actually began a decade earlier, in the conformist fifties, the economist Andrew Francis of Emory University (USA).
It is believed that the sexual revolution has been made possible with the advent of the birth control pill, which so happily coincided with a period of growing the rich and cheeky baby boomers in the U.S. and Western Europe. However, it is Read more [...]
Treatment. Significant advances in the treatment of meningococcal M. achieved only after the introduction of the practice of medicine sulfa drugs. Mortality in older children dropped to 5 - 12%. However, in young children the results of the treatment were less effective, and mortality in this age group was high (28-33%). Great advances in the treatment of meningococcal M. and other manifestations of infection were obtained with penicillin, especially in the early stages of the disease. Later, admission to hospital and later started treatment significantly worse prognosis, as in the first Read more [...]
First aid is to impose aseptic dressings, the first medical help audit includes bandages and introduction 1500 AE tetanus serum and penicillin in a dose of 100 000 IU. On stage, assisted by trained surgical help, should be performed primary debridement. If the situation forced the postponement of the operation, be sure to intramuscular introduction 400,000 ED penicillin. Postponement can not be allowed in the presence of a large wound damaged vessel, with obvious wounds contaminated land, in particularly severe crushing nature of her wounds in the radioactive contamination, and if the wound Read more [...]
In the early 20th century, the largest German scientist P. Ehrlich (1854 - 1915) demonstrated the possibility of synthesizing a given plan of drugs that can affect foreign organisms pathogens, and thus laid the foundations of a new section of pharmacology - chemotherapy. First successful experience in the field was cured animals from trypanosomiasis synthesized as directed by Ehrlich in 1904 dye (trypan red). In 1907, in search of anti-syphilis Ehrlich synthesized Salvarsan, an epoch in chemotherapy. Were then created derivatives salvarsan, led to a successful close combat parasitic diseases. Read more [...]
Treatment of syphilis carried out according to the stage of the disease and individual patient's body in one of the three options (with the addition of the scheme in 1968): 1) combined treatment penicillin (ekmonovotsillinom) with bismuth, and 2) a repeated courses of penicillin (ekmonovotsillinom) and in combination with non-specific therapy, and 3) a combination therapy with bismuth bitsillinom.
1. With primary seronegative syphilis spend 2 treatment rate of 100 000 units of soluble penicillin or ekmonovotsillina per 1 kg of patient weight, but not less than 6 million units per course followed Read more [...]
Causal treatment rheumatic fever is penicillin with a bactericidal effect on hemolytic streptococci, including group A of all types. Penicillin violates the synthesis of the cell wall of streptococcus in the period of its development, resulting in the death of the microbe. When untimely termination of treatment streptococci lacking cell walls, could suddenly turn into a normal bacterial cell, so one of the conditions of effectiveness of treatment are etiotrop it long enough and the constant maintenance of a certain concentration of penicillin in the blood. This task corresponds to a 5-day treatment Read more [...]
Subacute bacterial endocarditis (Endocarditis septica lenta). Usually occurs between the ages of 20-40 years, is more common in men.
Clinical presentation and course. Onset of the disease is almost always negligible. The general condition of the patient is gradually deteriorating, there is easy fatigue, weakness, discomfort in the heart, since most of these patients have heart disease, they will not produce a new disease. In rare cases, the disease is manifested acute: fever, a sharp rise in temperature, heart rate, pain in any part of the body. These symptoms depend on the sudden embolism Read more [...]
Semisynthetic penicillins - Antibiotics such as penicillin, synthetically addition of certain chemical groups to the selected biologically 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APK). This compound was obtained by Batchelor (FR Batchelor, 1959) and co-workers. from the culture medium after growth in her P. cbrysogenum in the absence of some predecessors, and later - by enzymatic hydrolysis of various natural penicillins. Obtaining large quantities 6APK opened wide prospects for the synthesis of compounds of the type of penicillin with special properties.
Among numerous semisynthetic penicillins used in Read more [...]
One after another appeared in the laboratory fungi, found everywhere you start mold. They take up residence in flasks in the banks with growing medium, forced to breed. Then tried to extract the desired substance. It was very hard work.
Ninety-three members of fungal families went through the lab. Each has undergone rigorous testing picky.
And one of them was suitable. For the first time it ran to the shelter. It was also called "penicillium". But not "notatum" and "krustozum."
After Professor Yermolyeva and her staff have studied the properties of this fungus, Read more [...]
Now, as we said, to increase the success of treatment.
Yet the results have not yet brought full satisfaction. Still observed many cases where disease did not respond to treatment.
It was, again, a strange and incomprehensible. Improvement occurred clear, indisputable. And suddenly disease, stihshaya already making a comeback. But why?
After all, penicillin possesses a powerful force that terminates the life of microbes.
Central Neurosurgical Institute to address this issue. But not alone. For his efforts, joined the efforts of the Institute, led Yermolyeva.
Yermolyeva professor and his team Read more [...]
The next page, I think, the most interesting event of the fill area is not herbal antibiotics, such as those extracted from the fungus mold, and animal antibiotics, which attracted the attention of Soviet researchers.
Moscow professor Jacobson identified by Professor Zilber of the red blood cells of different animals substance called eritrinom.
In the clinic of Professor Dobrokhotova treat children infected with diphtheria. There is a wonderful method to combat this disease - special serum infusion. This is a great means of saving the children from the dangers of diphtheria.
But as to the treatment Read more [...]
Only eight years later, that is, in 1937, were able to achieve a simplified method for extracting penicillin from the culture filtrate of green mold. But the simplified method was still very difficult.
A few more years, until the work more or less significant production of penicillin. Checking penicillin could already go to the clinic.
The first experience with the new drug immediately showed its high efficiency in various suppurative processes.
One patient started festering subcutaneous neck. It has become a deep, large abscess, which without surgery would be impossible to handle. In addition, Read more [...]
Could it be? Began checking emerged assumptions.
To do this, take the pieces of the same green mold and transplanted into other cups with staphylococcus culture. What was going on? In new places mold grew rapidly, and the colonies of staphylococci in its breeding thinned and disappeared.
Thus, it can be considered a well-established fact that mold killed staphylococci, as it was discovered 70 years ago and works Polotebnova Manasseina.
The researchers gradually emerging whole meaning of this unexpected clues green spot.
What is staphylococcus? This is just one member of a large family of microbial Read more [...]
Protivosifiliticheskie means - drugs used for the treatment and prevention of syphilis. By protivosifiliticheskih tools include drugs penicillin (see penicillin) - benzylpenicillin sodium salt, a potassium salt of benzylpenicillin, ekmonovotsillin, bicillin 1 bicillin 3, bismuth preparations (biyohinol, bismoverol, bitiurol, pentabismol) preparations of arsenic (novarsenol, miarsenol, osarsol ). Preparations of mercury, previously widely used to treat syphilis, now with that purpose are not used due to the low efficiency.
Penicillin drugs are a major protivosifiliticheskih funds. The short penicillins Read more [...]
Penicillin was opened by the influence that seen green mold fungus on staphylococci. In his presence, they died. It is only natural to assume that it will also be disastrous for streptococci and pneumococci and meningococci, - in short, for all of coccoid microorganisms. So it turned out. This is understandable. Related microbes have, and related properties, including properties lose their viability in the presence of penicillin.
But what is surprising is that penicillin kills not only the representatives of the family cocci. For example, diphtheria, in fact, nothing to do with staphylococcus Read more [...]
Now it was possible to extend the use of the new drug. By this time it managed to establish extraction so that it gets longer grams and kilograms in the whole month. Sintomitsina to the children's clinics and hospitals.
And everywhere there was the same picture: the plummeting deaths from dysentery, the whole course of the disease has changed for the better, significantly reduce recovery time.
Such action was sintomitsina.
But this is just the beginning, the first success in the field of synthetic antibiotics. We must assume that he was coming soon, and others - including the creation of Read more [...]
Several large problems facing those involved in penicillin and other antibiotics.
With regard to penicillin, the first task - to simplify the taking penicillin production.
The second task - Facilitate the use of penicillin. The best thing - to make sure that it can be taken orally, as a regular medication.
This not only is achievable - it is to a certain extent been achieved.
Soviet factories already make penicillin tablets and capsules, which can be swallowed, swallowed as pills, such as aspirin. The question is now reduced to only in order to ensure further improvement of the drug.
The third Read more [...]
The general condition of the patient must also be taken into account when prescribing antibiotics. This applies particularly to the state of such violations, such as anemia, liver failure, kidney, etc. When pronounced anemia should be careful when assigning chloramphenicol. Deficiency of liver and kidney limits, and in severe cases, eliminates the use of antibiotics with hepatotoxic (tetracycline) and nephrotoxic (tetracyclines, monomitsin, ristomitsin) action.
Antibiotics most commonly used in postpartum infection can be divided into five main groups: 1) penicillin and streptomycin2) tetracycline, Read more [...]
The best results in the treatment of infectious (septic), postnatal diseases can be achieved, provided an early, efficient and systematic management. Postpartum infection therapy must be comprehensive and has the following objectives: 1) weakening or destruction of the causative agent, and 2) to remove or neutralize the source of infection, and 3) to strengthen the body's resistance, mobilizing its defenses against infection, and 4) the elimination of unwanted symptoms.
Of course, this division is conditional - in the whole organism any intervention affects its condition and causes a reaction.
In Read more [...]
While in the Neurosurgical Institute of dealing with this problem, she is trying to solve others. Began to use a special ingredient - diodrast.
Diodrast was already known before, and it was used for x-rays and translucence, as a contrast, that is, giving a shadow matter. Because of this could be seen the outlines of internal organs.
When it was administered simultaneously with penicillin, it is found that penicillin not disappear from the blood. Of course, in the end his kidneys recovered, but it is much slower than without diodrasta.
Nicholas Nilovich Burdenko, however, decided to go his own Read more [...]