4. Another way of inactivation of phenolic compounds used animal organism - is methylation of the hydroxyl groups: - OH> O-CH3. Methylated usually one of two or three neighboring gidrokenlov, and that changes in the structure enough to phenol lost most of its biological activity. Methylation of the hydroxyl group - is the main way of inactivation of phenolic compounds of the animal organism - adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine (pirokatehinaminov).
Phenol methylation reaction proceeds with participation transferases. Transferase (from the Latin fero - move) - this is a group of enzymes that Read more [...]
Participation in the management of plant growth - one of the possible functions of plant phenolic compounds. The main role in the regulation of growth is owned by three groups of so-called growth hormone. This auxins, gibberellins and kinins.
Gibberellins - it diterpenoids, complex oksitsiklicheskie (but not aromatic) compounds; auxin - indole derivatives (eg, indole-3-acetic acid) kinins are built from core purine nitrogenous base;
Auxins accelerate the growth of roots, stretching cells, suppressing the same time growth lateral shoots. Gibberellins primarily contribute to the growth of the Read more [...]
Phenolic compounds are a part of any and all herbal products used for human consumption. In some cases, taste and nutritional quality of the product depends on the composition and transformations it contains phenols. Processing plant material and formed into a final product, a food-related so in many food industries with changes of phenolic compounds. This applies primarily to the production of black tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, wine, brandy, cider, beer.
Tea. Classic studies by Soviet scientists Oparin, Kursanov, MN Zaprometova, MA Bokuchava and E. Roberts and other foreign scientists have Read more [...]
When considering the structure of plant phenolic compounds belonging to different classes, series and groups talked about the fact that certain members of these substances are found in the tissues of any plant organism. Among the very numerous and various phenolic compounds of structure is extremely rare, occurring only in plants of the same species, genus or family. The detection of such substances help in the classification of plants. Others are found in the plant world from virtually anywhere. This anthocyanins and their aglycones - anthocyanidins, flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin), Read more [...]
Variety of structure of phenolic compounds is so significant that there is no doubt that both the functions performed by them in plants, is also quite diverse.
Clear and significant already mentioned the role of ubiquinone in electron transport along the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Going up the steps of the ladder, the hydrogen atoms, the electrons are gradually stepping stones give the chemical energy stored in the structure of organic compounds. This makes it easy to use it to work the muscles to maintain body temperature, etc. This corresponds to the appointment and very original, special, Read more [...]
The most accurate measure of radioprotective efficiency of a chemical compound is the FUD factor (dose reduction). This figure can be calculated by dividing the dose of ionizing radiation, which causes death in 50% of animals in protecting the drug, the dose which causes death in 50% of control, unprotected animals. FOOD natriygallata, to our knowledge, was equal to 1,15-1,16. It a bit. Other radioprotective drugs significantly more effective. But salt of gallic acid, and other plant phenolic compounds (catechins, galaskorbin) have at least two important advantages over the aminothiols and Read more [...]
In almost all vegetable sources contain phenolic compounds, along with ascorbic acid. Moreover, in the tissues of plants, plant products and in model solutions are mutually protect each other from oxidation. Indisputable synergistic vitamins C and E act in kapillyaroukreplyayuschim effect.
Similar and other manifestations of the biological activity of these vitamins. With equal effect, and even together they can be used to auto-oxidation inhibition of dietary fat as dietary antioxidants and preservatives. Both are able to stabilize adrenaline and other drugs in solution and in the blood. Both Read more [...]
Oxidizable phenols are converted into quinones, which are toxic not only to the pathogenic fungus, bacteria or virus, but also for the cells of the host plant. Therefore, the rapid accumulation of quinones are killed as pests penetrated and damaged cells of the plant. On leaves or other plant organs necrotic spots appear - dead cells stained in dark brown or black polymeric phenols, oxidative condensation products. These spots, for example, appear on tobacco leaves infected with the virus, from which the disease is called the tobacco mosaic. Plant donates part of its cells, which "commit Read more [...]
The second mechanism of action of phenolic compounds on the proteins associated with the anti-radical activity of phenols. In the course of the catalytic activity of certain enzymes produced intermediates radical nature - radicals substrate, co-enzyme or enzyme itself. Since many operating redox enzymes, xanthine oxidase, and other systems that require the participation of flavin coenzymes (during catalysis flavin radicals are formed.) Reacting with free radical intermediates, phenolic compounds directly inhibit the catalytic process.
Finally, the third mechanism of inhibition caused by the Read more [...]
When considering anti-inflammatory action of phenols have already spoken about the mediating role in the mechanism of endocrine component - the pituitary and adrenal glands (their cortex and medulla). This mechanism also has a broader meaning. Many of the manifestations of the biological activity of phenolic compounds is due to non-specific stress response that develops as a result of stimulation of the pituitary-adrenocortical system. It appears to reduce the thymus (thymic) in young experimental animals, an increase in the level of free 17 - and 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in the blood, thickening Read more [...]
On the secretion of digestive juices, most phenolic compounds does not impact. Only drugs licorice flavonoids and calendula several inhibit the production of gastric juice and it contains enzymes. Medical tannin in several small doses increases the amount of gastric juice, reduces the amount of proteins.
Liver - The largest digestive gland in the body. The liver performs many other important functions in the body, in particular neutralizes all kinds of toxic substances into the bloodstream from the stomach and intestines. Its neutralizing and filtering role of the liver can carry out fully Read more [...]
In the body of humans and animals as a part of plant foods, as well as medical drugs, especially phenolic compounds have a direct effect on the mucous membranes of the digestive tube, and then into the blood - also on smooth muscle, digestive juices, absorptive function.
Presence in fruits, vegetables, a significant amount of catechins leykoantotsianidinov, especially condensed phenols, gives food a tart taste - this is one of the manifestations of the mucous membranes. Condensed phenols astringent effect similar to the effect of tanning, and contribute to the formation of a thin layer of precipitated Read more [...]
In mammals and humans is a complex one, but perfect and safe working system supply the body, each of its cells with oxygen. It includes the airways, the lungs with their huge contact surface air with the blood through the pulmonary membrane delicate bubbles - the alveoli and the blood with a wonderful mechanism of transport of oxygen by hemoglobin of red blood cells, and finally, the system of tissue and intracellular redox enzymes.
The ability of plant phenolic compounds inhibit the activity of most oxidases (the only exception is peroxidase) means that when they are administered to decrease Read more [...]