Fig. 4. Infiltrativepneumonic tuberculosis.
Fig. 5. Tuberculous Lobito.
Infiltrative - pneumonic form are in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Inflammatory changes in the form of a rounded focus is called infiltration (see), usually located in the infraclavicular area. Infiltration is pneumonic hearth with cheesy center and therefore prone to the formation of cavities, to bronchogenic and lymphatic spread (Fig. 4), and sometimes the whole process captures a share of the lung (TB Lobito, Fig. 5).
By infiltrative-pneumonic process is also caseous pneumonia - Heavy form tuberculosis, which is Read more [...]
Injuries chest cells can be combined with injury (rupture of the liver, spleen, internal organs of the abdomen, kidneys), therefore, a thorough examination of the patient, as a diagnostic bug and delayed surgery can have severe consequences.
Rib fractures are often complicated by pneumonia. Can not be neglected by any means prevent pneumonia, as local anesthesia the fracture site, the timely appointment of breathing exercises, expectorants, etc.
The absence of X-ray examination often leads to late diagnosis and delayed treatment of hemothorax.
Complete information on the incidence of acute pneumonia athletes represented only study L. Mecl (1965). It comparative analysis of acute pneumonia in the three groups a total of 2150 people (those physical labor, athletes and sportsmen of high qualification). Age surveyed ranged from 20.1 to 32.4 years. It was found that acute pneumonia rarely seen mostly in persons engaged in physical exercise, more often in athletes and most of all - in those physical labor. As for the frequency of complications of acute pneumonia, then the athletes they met 2 times more likely than those involved in physical Read more [...]
Therapeutic physical training is for all respiratory diseases, both acute and chronic.
The therapeutic effect of exercise with respiratory diseases manifested in their tonic effect, the impact on trophic processes in the lungs, to accelerate resorption of fluid in the pleural cavity, in the normalization of neuro-regulatory mechanism of breathing in the prevention of complications in the development if necessary compensation in the form of extension individual phases of breathing in changing the type of breathing, strengthening the respiratory muscles, to increase mobility of the chest, in the Read more [...]
These observations illustrate the sequence of the pathological process in the lungs with its primary localization in the walls of blood vessels and the subsequent involvement of the perivascular tissue and lung parenchyma. Noteworthy not peculiar extensive nonrheumatic pneumonia rapid regression of inflammatory changes under the influence of antirheumatic therapy. Thus, the features of X-ray pictures, its dynamics will confirm the diagnosis of rheumatic pneumonia.
Morphological basis rheumatic pneumonia is sometimes assumes the character of necrotic rheumatic endoperivaskulit accompanied predominantly Read more [...]
The classical form of rheumatic pneumonia is very rare. However, lung injury during acute rheumatic fever may be observed in patients with relapsing-continuous process and the presence of rheumatoid pleurisy, diffuse carditis (pankardita), with symptoms of heart failure. Occurrence of pneumonia in the majority of patients accompanied by a significant increase in body temperature, increased shortness of breath, increase acute phase laboratory parameters and titles protivostreptokokkovyh antibodies. Localization process, unilateral or bilateral, nizhnedolevaya. The classic signs of pneumonia, Read more [...]
Pathogenesis of lung and pleura in rheumatism particularly complex. This is due to the fact that in the development of vascular and parenchymal lung damage important place hemodynamic disturbances. This is expressed clinically in the occurrence of stagnant bronchitis, cardiac asthma, swelling and induration brown lung. Actually inflammatory rheumatic lung and pleura caused by immune, microcirculatory disorders kapillyaritami, widespread or limited vasculitis mostly small branches of pulmonary artery. They form the basis of rheumatic pneumonia, pleurisy, thromboembolic processes, lead to pulmonary Read more [...]
Infection can occur through the skin (by the bite of fleas, rubbing crushed fleas or their excrement into the intact skin or contact with infected material), the respiratory tract and conjunctiva. Plague microbe, once in the human skin, penetrates quickly to regional lymph nodes. Inflammatory response in the skin (a place the entrance gate) and lymph vessels is rare. In some cases, the skin appears primary Affect - pustule or carbuncle with serous-hemorrhagic content. Subsequently ulcers are formed, the bottom of which is impregnated with hemorrhagic exudate. When recovery is granulated ulcers Read more [...]
Pneumonia in children in the preschool and school age now proceeds mainly by the type of pneumonia, occasionally in the form of lobar pneumonia.
Pneumonia in this age much rarer and milder than in early. Temperature rises more to 38 °. Initially dry cough, sometimes rough (laryngo-tracheal), later becomes wet, deeper, with the separation of a small amount of mucus.
Often - headache, malaise, loss of appetite. Skin color usually pink. Several learning the breathing and pulse. For percussion in limited areas, especially in the lower lobes of the lungs, - shortening or blunting sound auscultation Read more [...]
Pneumonia in children, especially young children, are diagnosed primarily by X-ray diffraction (Fig. 11, 12 and 13).
Direct radiographic signs small focal pneumonia observed in young children, is the appearance of focal lung opacities, mainly in the lower parts, which can be explained by the presence of a large number of segments and their projection to merge posteroanterior radiograph (and therefore per unit area, more foci). The projection of the diaphragm makes its contour blurring. Patchy shadows corresponding defeat acini and lobules are mostly group arrangement, Read more [...]
Morbid anatomy. Changes in lung pnevmomikoze range from severe destructive forms to relatively minor morphological manifestations of bronchitis and asthma caused by allergic reactions to fungus. Select the shape of the primary lesion occurring in intact lung tissue, and second, developing against the background of previous lung damage by another process (bronchiectasis, tumors, etc.). Fungus the secondary lesions may saprofitirovat in necrotic fields or cause additional reaction with living tissues. More often at the same time are saprofitiruyuschie yeast (Candida) and molds (aspergillosis, penitsillez, Read more [...]
Anatomopathological distinguished: focal (Or limited) and spread (or diffuse) pulmonary fibrosis. When focal pnevmoskleroze easily observed in dense airless field whitish or slate-gray, sometimes occupying the entire segments and arranged in the form of nodules with a diameter of a few millimeters. Common, or mesh, multiple sclerosis appears as white strips surrounding the bronchi, vessels and lobules. This is also referred to as multiple sclerosis lymphangitis reticularis, lymphangitis trabecularis. For a typical focal P. melkopetlistaya grid, resulting thickening of interalveolar Read more [...]
Clinical presentation and course
Pneumonia in infants runs very hard and often fatal outcome. The best part - it's pneumonia.
The clinical picture is dominated by the common symptoms: the rejection of the chest, regurgitation, vomiting, dyspeptic stool, weight loss. Most low-grade temperature, sometimes normal. Cough, frothy mucus in the mouth. Face pale, grayish-buying earthy hue appears pronounced cyanosis. Breathing speeded up to 80-120 in 1 min., Superficial, sometimes groaning, periodically interrupted (apnea). Marked swelling of the nose or the voltage, synchronous Read more [...]
Pneumocystis (synonym PCP) - disease lungs caused by Pneumocystis, occurring with a high fever and severe shortness of breath; Pathogen pneumocystosis - Pneumocystis Carini, which refers to the simplest.
Pneumocystis distributed around the world. Ill pneumocystis mostly infants, weak and immature. Older children are a parasite, sometimes they are experiencing severe clinical disease. Sources of infection are dogs, cats, sheep, goats and rodents.
Clinic studied disease is not enough. The incubation period is 30-40 days.
In the clinical course of pneumocystosis three stages. The first stage Read more [...]
Pulmonary fibrosis - growth of connective tissue in the lungs, leading to disruption of their function.
Pulmonary fibrosis - a disease polietiologicheskoe. Distinguish cardiogenic pulmonary fibrosis that develops due to prolonged stagnation in heart diseases and various lesions of the myocardium. Contribute to the development of cardiogenic pneumosclerosis often occur in these patients pneumonia and pulmonary infarction.
Cardiogenic pulmonary fibrosis, causing lung function, aggravates the effects of heart failure. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by pneumoconiosis (see); metapnevmonichesky Read more [...]
Pneumonia (Pneumonia) - different etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory processes in the alveoli, bronchioles, interstitial connective tissue, often involved in inflammatory process, and the vessels of the lung.
Pneumonia occurs as an independent disease or difficult for other diseases.
Distinguish between acute and chronic pneumonia. There are several morphological types of acute pneumonia, but the main focal and consider lobar pneumonia. This division gives insight into the nature of anatomical changes, the prevalence and severity of the disease process. When focal lobar pneumonia and Read more [...]
Hypostatic pneumonia - Focal bacterial pneumonia, developing in the posterior-lower lung in severe bedridden patients with symptoms of congestive plethora. The emergence of progressive pneumonia, frequently low-grade temperature, but may be normal. Percussion sound of the lungs in nizhnezadnih blunt, breathing relaxed, listened abundant sonorous rales.
Inhalation pneumonia - ORIGIN pneumonia, resulting from aspiration of all foreign matter into the lungs (vomit, food particles, etc.). In the microbial flora of sputum revealed, besides the usual pneumonia bacteria, spirochetes and fusiform bacilli. Read more [...]
Besides the well-known infectious diseases - such as scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, there are diseases that, while not in the full sense of infectious spread from patient to health by exposure. These include, in particular, pneumonia and suppurative disease. For convenience, we shall agree to call these diseases are infectious.
The most common infectious diseases in newborns are:
1) acute respiratory infections, pneumonia;
2) suppurative disease; 3) intestinal infection; 4) infectious hepatitis. Each of these corresponds to a certain disease epidemic mode. When servicing patients with Read more [...]
In the treatment of pneumonia in premature infants child care belongs to one of the leading places. Inadequate care can undermine all the progress made in the course of treatment, and exacerbate pneumonia. The main provisions of care are:
1. Airing. The room in which the patient with pneumonia, should be continuously and intensively ventilated. Fresh cool air through receptors reflex respiratory normalizes the function of the respiratory center, improves blood circulation and has a calming effect on the central nervous system. Outwardly, it appears rather quickly: breathing becomes deeper Read more [...]
Staphylococcal pneumonia with in a separate form, as it features a distinctive clinical course. In light of various sizes formed air spaces (bullae), abscesses. Along with this there are frequent complications of pleurisy and pneumothorax.
Organism is pathogenic staphylococci. In contrast to the one just described septic pneumonia staphylococcal pneumonia is primary and is not associated with purulent foci. Bronchogenic infection occurs through the respiratory tract. Provoking point is often a respiratory infection.
The disease mostly begins acutely, with worsen. Children become sluggish Read more [...]