on August 10. A new and dangerous breed of mouse mutants that are resistant to existing strongest poisons, appeared in Europe. She is the offspring of the common European and Algerian desert mouse. Previously such pairs were born only sterile specimens. But now the situation has changed.
«We have an amazing case of evolution, when inside rodent collapsed existing biological boundaries and distant relatives from Europe and North Africa were able to reproduce offspring», — said in an interview with radio Bi-bi-si Professor of American rice University /Texas/ Michael Cohn.
Due Read more [...]
Many aspidovyh neurotoxins consist of 61-62 amino acid residues in the same chain, joined four disulfide bonds (Lee, Peng, 1961). Toxic venom fraction N. naja contains 61 amino acid residues and 8 cystine. Unlike kobrotoksina it has an alanine residue 2, 3 - phenylalanine, proline, and a lot more no methionine, has terminal amino acids-isoleucine and the C-terminal alanine (Nakai is a., 1970). Yang et al. (1969) from the main component of the neurotoxic venom N. naja identified 62 amino acid residues: 8 - aspartic acid, 7 - glutamic acid, 8 - threonine, 4 - serine, 2 - proline, 7 - glycine, Read more [...]
Therapeutic serum recognized as a very effective means of local scientists (EN Pavlovsky, 1931 FF Talyzin et al, 1955 MN Sultanov, 1958, 1963, 1969, 1973, etc.), as well as scientists from different countries (Gitter is a., 1959; Detrait is a., 1959; Reid, 1962, 1963; Trethewie, 1970, Mohamed is a., 1973; Tu Anthoni, Salafranca, 1974, etc.). With a wide range of specific neutralizes actions protivozmeinaya serum to neutralize the whole rational dose poison (MN Sultanov, 1959; Carey, Wright, 1962, etc.), rapidly suppresses its overall effect (MN Sultanov, 1958, 1963 ; Reid, 1962) and eliminates Read more [...]
As can be seen, for poisoning poisons aspidovyh no inflammatory, hemorrhagic and necrotic effects (Boquet, 1964, and others), but common symptoms develop as a result of dysfunction of the central and peripheral regions of the respiratory, cardiovascular, neuromuscular and other systems.
The most dangerous sea snakes bites. Unlike aspidovyh and viper venoms and their toxins, providing a purely neurotropic action does not directly affect the blood or cardiovascular system. Half an hour later - a few hours after the bite maloboleznennogo appear sluggish, less spastic, spinal and bulbar paresis, Read more [...]
Toxicology - The science that studies the physical and chemical properties of poisons, their mechanisms of action on the body and its modification under the influence of poisons. Toxicology seeking the means for prevention and treatment of poisoning and the possibility of toxic deystviya1yadov useful in various fields of biology and medicine. In its goals and methods of investigation toxicology closely related to the pharmacology (see). This is explained by the fact that some drugs in high doses can have toxic effect and, conversely, some poisons in small doses have a therapeutic action. Read more [...]
Almost 2 out of 9 used radioactive isotopes - Cl38 and Cl36.
Isotope Cl38 [T = 37.3 min.,? -1.11 (30.8%), 2.77 (15.8%), 4.81 (53.4%) MeV, Y-rays - 1.60 (43%), 2.12 (57%)]. Available in a gas adsorbed on carbon.
In the water and soil Cl38 formed from stable chlorine by neutrons of a nuclear explosion, occurs in biological material under neutron irradiation, for example, to neutron activation. Because of the short half-life, has limited uses in the isotope method, although the hardness of the radiation (up to 5 MeV) makes radiometry this isotope.
Isotope Cl36, in contrast, has a very long half-life Read more [...]
People are often faced with the so-called thiol poisons - mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, antimony, etc. Some of these products are part of the drugs. They all share the ability to enter into selective chemical reaction with sulfhydryl, or thiol, groups of various macromolecules of the body in the first place - the enzyme and other protein structures, and some amino acids. Sulfhydryl compounds is attributed to the exceptional role in the biochemical processes and life support. Since substances containing sulfhydryl groups associated nerve impulse, tissue respiration, muscle contraction, cell Read more [...]
Mechanisms of the harmful effect of the poison of vipers and yamkogo-lovyh (rattlesnakes), snakes have a number of common features that distinguish them, in turn, from the action of poisons elapid and sea snakes. These differences are due to peculiar chemical composition of poisons that the Viper and the rattlesnake is rich in proteolytic enzymes with different substrate specificity. In addition to enzymes, their neurotoxic venom contains components that have high activity and in many cases provide a lethal effect of poisons.
Unlike poison elapid and sea snake poisoning caused by rattlesnake Read more [...]
The study of plant poisons put Zertyuner German chemist, in 1803, when isolated from opium, morphine. In subsequent decades, naturalists and pharmacists isolated - especially of exotic plants - more and more toxins. Since these poisons were the same for all their basic character - were similar bases, they have a common name alkaloids. All plant alkaloids affect the nervous system of humans and animals: in small doses acts as a remedy in more significant - as a deadly poison.
In 1818, Pelletier and Kavantu isolated from emetic nut deadly strychnine. In 1820 Desos quinine found in the bark of Read more [...]
The emergence of effective antidotes preceded by a long way of searching many generations. Naturally, the beginning of this path is associated with the time when the people were known poisons. In ancient Greece, people believed that against any poison should apply its antidote. This principle, one of the authors of which was Hippocrates, supports and other prominent representatives of medicine for many centuries, although, of course, in the chemical sense, then, there were no grounds for any such statements. Yet recognition of the ancient medicine for specific antidotes special healing properties Read more [...]
Hemolytic poisons - Substances that cause hemolysis when the penetration into the body. To hemolytic poisons include a number of chemical compounds with which one is confronted in industrial production (aniline, hydrogen sulfide, lead, etc.).
Hemolysis (Cm) may occur at mushroom poisoning (see Fungi, poisoning), bites of poisonous snakes (see), and when taking certain drugs (quinine, phenacetin, sodium nitrite, Pasco, sulfa drugs). Treatment with these drugs is carried out under the control of blood and immediately terminate at the first sign of hemolysis. Depending on the nature of the receipt Read more [...]
Spruce forest was so thick that his shadow did not grow grass. Only here and there, in the old rotten stumps and trunks, fallen storm could see the moss and lichens. It seemed that in the dark shadows of spruce forest hid all the bad spirits. There was a smell of damp and fungi.
Through the thorny branches hardly crept young hunter. The first time he found himself far from home and far behind her. He was not lucky naporovshis of acute limb, he hurt his leg. For a long time had to go for the sunset. There, far to the west, was the river, on the bank of a settlement of his relatives. From Read more [...]