fotolia.com It is said that Ivan Pavlov, the great Russian physiologist, founder of the theory of conditioned reflexes, once enraged for evermore to his assistants: «What do you work out like parrots: reflexes reflexes ... Where is the intelligence and the mind?»The basis of the behavior of all animals, including dogs lie instincts, conditioned reflexes and cognitive behavior, including an elementary rational activities. (Doctrine of the latest developed by Russian scientists LN Krushinsky 70-ies. XX century, while Western scholars stood on the positions of behaviorism Read more [...]
Specific (natural) combat reaction inherent in every man at the beginning. Our far protcol this reaction worked well at close range machine with any sharp or otherwise traffic in the surrounding space. The intention of the enemy was estimated simultaneously and only on a subconscious level. Who began to think he was killed.Think back to your childhood joy in the Junior school. If anyone of the guys jokingly made a sudden movement towards you, inside you have something twitched. It worked primitive instinct threats, including specific military response.In childhood we are closer to nature, because Read more [...]
Sneezing - it is certainly a reflex response of the body, aimed at the removal of irritating agent from the nasal cavity, expressed rapid transient decrease in respiratory muscles and the muscles of the pharynx, coming after a short breath.
The act of sneezing occurs when stimulation of receptors of the nasal mucosa. Afferent part of the reflex sneezing introducing the second branch of the trigeminal nerve, the central part - the reticular formation of medulla oblongata, efferent link - the phrenic and intercostal nerves to the respiratory muscles, as well as wandering and language-pharyngeal Read more [...]
Physiologists have long been trying to find out the nature of the physiological changes that occur in the body during fatigue. Previously, these attempts were mainly physiology of physical work, paired with the increased work of the muscles. Physiologists of the past, as the reader already knows, paid most attention to the muscle activities.
However, exploring the work of muscles and the processes that occur at the same time, psychologists have only seen the final results of the organism.
Indeed, muscle movement is the "final act of all" (Sechenov). What would you do: laugh or sad, Read more [...]
Work of Russian scientists Sechenov Vvedenskii and Pavlov showed that the basis of diverse human activities are neural processes - excitation and inhibition.
In 1863 he published a brilliant work of Sechenov "Reflexes of the Brain," in which, based on his experimental studies have proved the presence of the central nervous system during braking (on the excitation of the physiologists was already known), J. M . Sechenov developed the idea of the reflex, as a mechanism of any form of the highly developed organism.
Contrary to the views of the majority of foreign scientists, and in particular Read more [...]
Conditioned reflexes - are complex adaptive response of the body, assumes the highest parts of the central nervous system through the formation of a temporary connection between the signal stimulus and supportive to the stimulus unconditioned reflex act. Based on the analysis of the formation of conditioned reflexes Pavlov school was established doctrine of the higher nervous activity (see). In contrast to the unconditioned reflexes (see), which provide the adaptation of the body to the constant influence of the environment, conditioned reflexes allow the body to adapt to changing environmental Read more [...]
Authors have established a stronger deleterious effect of intermittent sounds, explain the fact that a reflex contraction of stapedius muscle, which reduces the intensity of the transmitted sound, thus playing a protective role, if they did not come. It is due to the short duration of the sound pulse is delayed. Obviously, for such approval should be taken into account in a particular pulse in the ratio with a latent period of the reflex muscle onset time and minimize fading reflex. If the pulse noise or sound is very frequent, the pause between the pulses are very short, in which case arising Read more [...]
Braking - a physiological process in the central nervous system, resulting in a delay of excitation. Inhibition can not be spread like excitations (see), as local process. Inhibition occurs at the time of the meeting of two impulses, one of which is inhibitory and the other inhibited.
Braking process was first shown in 1862, Russian physiologist IM Sechenov. Incision was made in the frog brain at the level of thalamus with the removal of the cerebral hemispheres. Measured the time reflex flick hindpaw immersed it in a solution of sulfuric acid (method of Turks.) When applied to the thalamus Read more [...]
Severe for Russia were the years of the First World War. It is not easy at the time and had to scientists.
Many researchers, and indeed, Pavlov, for days in hospital, helping the sick and wounded. However, Pavlov and his many students to continue their scientific observations.
Often, a staff member of Pavlov on the phone asked the minister to prepare the laboratory animal for the experience. However, staying in the hospital, the staff would often come to the lab after a long delay. It has long been prepared for the experience of a dog stood in the straps was made drowsy and fell asleep. Probably Read more [...]
Reflexes from the mucous membranes.
Cornea (corneal) reflex caused touch a piece of paper or cotton swab to the cornea. In response to irritation comes the closing century. In the implementation of this reflex involved trigeminal nucleus and fibers and facial nerves.
Conjunctival reflex is caused by touching a cotton swab or a piece of paper to the conjunctiva. In response to irritation comes the closing century. In the implementation of this reflex involved trigeminal nucleus and fibers and facial nerves.
Pharyngeal reflex and reflex caused by touching the soft palate with a spatula to the Read more [...]
"Sleepy inhibition" also has a "protective inhibition" and helps to restore the health of the cerebral hemispheres. The deeper the sleep, that is, the intensity and extent of sleep inhibition, the more and more fully recover from.
Sleepy inhibition radiate as a form of cortical inhibition may arise from any form of inhibition that appears in the cerebral cortex. This physiological scheme is valid both for animals and in humans.
When the food or sexual excitability in dogs, as well as the action of super-strong contingent stimuli can develop transcendental inhibition, causes Read more [...]
We must assume that a somnambulistic state mentioned subjects differed from that of those who have had a full amnesia. It happens (study M. Suslov) due to somnambulistic stage hypnosis childhood memories after hypnosis subjects were evaluated as dreams. For example, the subject was hypnotized K. and put into somnambulistic phase. In this state he was brought home to remember the experience the age of twelve. He remembered, and immediately told me that he was "in Tbilisi is in an area with other boys with the turtles and the boy put the board on the turtles and they ride." After the Read more [...]
Reflexes - reaction to the impact of external and internal environment, implemented by means of the central nervous system. With the reflexes of a persistent, proper, and compliance functions of the body to surrounding conditions.
Reflexes are classified into different groups depending on a number of grounds. Distinguish reflexes exteroceptive, that is caused by irritation of receptors of the body surface; interoceptive arising during stimulation of internal organs, blood vessels, proprioceptive - during stimulation of muscles, tendons and ligaments.
Depending on the spinal and brain needed to Read more [...]
Vomiting - complicated reflex act in which there is unintentional ejection of stomach contents outwards due to excitation of the vomiting center.
Vomiting consists of series of movements. Closed first gatekeeper, and reduced pyloric part of the stomach. It overflows the bottom of the stomach cardia and disclosure of his department. Stomach contents into the esophagus and gets pushed out under the influence of stress and abdominal movements of respiratory muscles.
Vomiting center is located in the bottom of the IV ventricle and is excited by impulses coming from the gastrointestinal tract and Read more [...]
Irritant - Is drugs that cause the local application irritation sensory nerve endings. Irritants to belong to different classes of chemical compounds. They are usually highly soluble in lipids, which allows them to penetrate the epidermis and the superficial layers of the epithelium and reach the sensitive nerve endings.
When applying irritants to the skin and mucous membranes of the local reaction is observed in the form of redness and swelling, and irritation of the characteristic of the receptive field reflexes. The therapeutic effect of irritating explain the emergence of reflexes that lead Read more [...]
Pathological reflexes occur due to lesions of the pyramidal path that conducts impulses from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. Pyramidal path extends from the anterior central gyrus of the cerebral cortex through subcortical regions of the brain, brain stem and ends in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.
Pathological reflexes are observed not only in cases of lesions of the pyramidal pathways, and normal children 1-1.5 years (see above). Distinguish pathological reflexesA) wrist b) stopnye (flexor and extensor), c) oral automatism.
Brush reflexes characterized by the fact that at Read more [...]
Metacarpal-ray (carpo-radial) reflex caused by a blow hammer on the ulnar styloid. In response to the hammer blow occurs elbow flexion and forearm cast. Study metacarpophalangeal radial reflex is possible in two positions: 1) hand study of the elbow is bent at an obtuse angle and resting freely on the hand exploring, 2) study arms bent at the elbows at an obtuse angle and lie freely on the abdomen (Fig. 8). In the implementation of the reflex involved fiber musculocutaneous, radial nerve segments CV - CVIII spinal cord.
Edge - abdominal reflex caused by a blow hammer on the edge of the costal Read more [...]
The task of the lesson: to give an idea of the importance of higher nervous activity in the external and internal inhibition, based on a compilation of the formation, inhibition of conditioned reflexes and discrimination stimuli give an idea about the physiological basis of animal behavior.
Equipment. Demonstration material: live objects - guinea pigs, rabbits, cat or other animals, paintings from the series "Animal World", movies "Inhibition reflexes, "or" Animal Behavior, "or" conditioned reflex ", Part 3, Table" Education and external inhibition Read more [...]
The task of the lesson: to give an idea about the structure and role of the spinal cord in the implementation of the unconditioned reflexes establish the structural features and functions of the human spinal cord.
Equipment. Demonstration material: the spine to the spinal cord, normal and spinal frog stand, tweezers, glasses of water, with a weak and a strong acid solution, pieces of filter paper, the table: "The development of the nervous system in animals", "Dorsal brain "and" knee-jerk reaction. "
Handout: wet preparations spinal card depicting a segment of spinal Read more [...]
The task of the lesson: to deepen the concept of reflex, set all parts of the reflex pathway (receptors, nerves and central nervous system), and give an elementary concept of the reflex arc of the unconditioned reflex. To acquaint students with the process of braking.
Equipment. Demonstration material: tripod, tweezers, a glass with a saline solution, a glass with a weak solution (0.3%) of hydrochloric acid, spinal frog, Table: "The structure of the nervous tissue," "Muscle and work", "Reflection", the metronome.
1. Repetition, and testing. The structure Read more [...]