Topographic map - this is a very interesting and extremely deep drawing. The famous Russian traveler Semenov-Tyan-Shansky said so on this occasion, "Map more important than the text, as is often said much brighter, visually and concisely the best text. " And so it is. Each sheet topographic map contains a wealth of material on the disclosure of which would have required hundreds of pages in a book.
Map - a graphical description of the terrain. Just as the letters are made up of individual words and groups of words express thoughts, and by various topographic symbols, arranged Read more [...]
In this group of fifteen major topographical signs that need to be familiar with the tourist.
Sami settlements - villages, villages, farms, villages and cities - complex structures consisting of various buildings and structures. Therefore, there is no simple topographical signs of the village - it is made up of various local topographical signs of objects that make up what is called a settlement.
First, it is separate residential and non-residential buildings. They portrayed nemasshtabnym black rectangles (Fig. 13 a). If the structure (The house) is very large in size, and map large Read more [...]
(From the Dutch. Loodsen - lead ship), a guide to navigation, containing a detailed description of the body of water (the coast, bottom topography, landmarks on the river, in line with the obstacles and how they move) Tour. L. (unlike LA river for navigators) detail made only on difficult sections of the river. Specifies the time required for completing each section for diff. classes of ships pass through the channel options, the system of insurance, the positioning of the whistle (to facilitate orientation on the threshold) as well as a possible landing site to the shore, Naib. convenient Read more [...]
The term "topography" is derived from the Greek word "topos", which means "country" and "The Count" - "description." Topography - the science that deals with the study area in order to make maps and plans. Surveyors using special optical instruments photographed terrain from aircraft, were measured on the ground and put on paper all relief. Populated areas, individual buildings, rivers, roads, forests, hills and mountains, power lines, etc. All these elements are called local objects.
The word "map" has been known since ancient Read more [...]
(French for horizontal, from the Greek. Horizons, b. Deaths horizontos, letters. - Bounding) curves for Geography. map connecting points of terrain with the same height above sea level and give an idea of the relief of the earth's surface. G. is a section of the projection area uronennymi surfaces given height. When you create topographic cards intersecting horizontal planes carried at regular intervals in height, called vertical interval, to the paradise strictly conditional map scale (the larger the scale, the lower the height of the section), and the resulting steep section line projected Read more [...]
Value (degree) reduce areas on the map called the scale.
Such a reduction can be very large: ten, fifty, one hundred thousand times and more. So greatly reduce the image area on the map for it was convenient to use. One can not make a map, for example, the section from Moscow to St. Petersburg on a scale that reduces this terrain only two to ten times: the distance from Moscow to St. Petersburg more than 600 kilometers, even if it is reduced to one hundred times, then map, made on a sheet of paper that are longer than b km, will be completely useless - it can not be used. Yes, and this card Read more [...]
Obtaining necessary for the card should be good to study it: set the year compilation and publication of maps; familiarize itself with the conventional signs, know the magnetic declination, which is usually imposed for frame maps, determine the scope, determine the cross section of the relief, explore scale congestion and allocate greater visibility area of interest with colored pencils: forest - green, water - blue, roads - brown, bridges and causeway - black, various landmarks - red, etc.
Numerical and graphical scale maps are usually placed below the map, under the frame. If for some reason Read more [...]
When working with topographic maps have to measure the distance in a straight line on a winding, and to measure and calculate angles. You must first know the scale of the map. Scale is the ratio of the length of the line on the map to the length of the corresponding line in the area, expressed in the same measures of length. There are numerical and linear scale maps.
Numerical scale of the map is written as a fraction or ratio of two numbers. The numerator is one, and the denominator - the number that shows how many times the actual size on the ground reduced the depiction on the Read more [...]
What is a topographic map and how is it different from other (geographic) maps? First of all scales. Topographic map is called a precise and detailed image of the terrain in the (paper), made with a decrease in local lines from ten thousand to one million times. If the decrease in local lines represented more than one million times, then this card is called geographical. Therefore, the main difference between the topography and geographical maps is that the image area on the maps will always be more detailed than the maps. On a topographic map can be shown in sufficient detail all the elements Read more [...]
An important type of tourist equipment is the compass. It is believed that 2-3 compasses to the group is sufficient. Indeed, so many compasses can do in a campaign. Still need to strive to ensure that every traveler had his compass. If a person wants to learn how to navigate the terrain - and without this skill can not be a real tourist, - that he should use every opportunity to practice. Young tourists somehow believe that this opportunity has only one who currently leads the group. Wrong. Such an opportunity is provided for all members of the group. It is only necessary to release or Read more [...]