Ileus. Intestinal obstruction reproduce the experiment in several ways.
1. Intersection and tight suturing of various departments of the intestine. High: obstruction develops in animals crossing and suturing of the duodenum at a distance of 30 cm from the pylorus (Operation White and Fender). To create a blockage at the level of the ileum produce its intersection and suturing both ends tightly. When crossing and tight suturing of the colon, there is complete low intestinal obstruction.
2. Ligation or clamping of the intestine at various levels. To study the symptomatology of intestinal Read more [...]
The study of carbohydrate metabolism. Test with galactose. After receiving galactose evaluate speed of its transformation into liver glycogen. Evaluation is performed on the speed of its removal from the blood (see Galactosemia) and the amount allocated in the urine (see galactosuria). Positive test indicated for acute and chronic P. sample does not reflect the changes in the function of the initial P.
The study of serum enzyme activity. Most of the studied enzymes in the clinic, called the main number of enzymes (transaminases, dehydrogenases, isomerases, phosphatases, cholinesterase, etc.) Read more [...]
In 1901 it was discovered that in the blood of healthy people may contain a substance that can cause agglutination (gluing) of erythrocytes of other people. The study of agglutination of red blood cells in a human plasma or serum of another person to create a scientific basis for an important medical event - a blood transfusion.
Blood transfusion is carried out at a large blood loss, some poisoning (in particular, where the violation of the ability of hemoglobin to bind oxygen), when reduced hemoglobin in the blood, and many other medical conditions. In the past, attempts to blood transfusion Read more [...]
Cases of stings and poisoning poisonous scorpions, often severe, and often fatal, are described in ancient treatises, in the writings of Hippocrates and Ibn Sina and others in medicine and medical practice chelation therapy was limited to topical application of various means, at best, it was extracts of medicinal herbs. Severe poisoning poisonous scorpions fatalities are common in our time, as performed at the same events are often ineffective. Scorpion venom caused painful state, burning throbbing pain, irregular twitching of the facial muscles, shoulders, torso and limbs, heavy perspiration, Read more [...]
Intravenous administration of 33% ethyl alcohol and the bite obkalyvanie 0.25% solution of novocaine JA Thankful (1956) describes as a pathogenetically based methods of treatment. However, its results suggest the opposite: 50 convalescents only 7 discharge considered themselves healthy, and the remaining 43 (86%) felt sick. In 19 painful condition mentioned in the course of four months, from 24 in a year or more. General weakness, fatigue, pain in the limbs and in the whole body, shortness of breath and palpitations, headaches and dizziness, impotence, decreased hearing, lacrimation, sweating, Read more [...]
If one of the causes breathing difficulties for bites of snakes is the filling of the lungs and pulmonary vascular blood clots, the leading cause of death - respiratory arrest as a result of complex changes, especially in the central nervous system, the respiratory center, resulting in paralysis of the intercostal, then the diaphragmatic muscle, and hypoxia as a result of hypotension, etc. The use by some researchers support activities (mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy), aimed at restoring respiration (Campbell, 1967), is unreliable and inconclusive without the introduction of a rational therapeutic Read more [...]
A., aged 35, after being bitten by a snake in the right forearm taken to the medical department of the Nakhichevan Hospital. Narimanov 22/IX 1955 in critical condition, with signs of a threatening miscarriage (pregnancy 5 months). Complaints of frequent cramping abdominal pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, feeling of choking, sometimes fainted. 20-25 min after intravenous (70 ml) and subcutaneous (30 mL) administration native serum, cardiac glycosides and symptomatic of the patient's condition improved, cramping pain diminished and disappeared. On the 6th day discharged in good condition. Read more [...]
The problem of developing an immune serum for vaccinations is very urgent. Accordingly, a special study. However, the "immunization" animal snake toxoid duration of immunity was 15-20 days.
Passive immunity obtained with the introduction protivozmeinoy serum as a temporary (EN Pavlovsky, 1931).
As reported by Watt et al. (1956), one and the same person course 12 years, 10 times been bitten snake, However, immunity to poisons has not developed, S., 27, for 5 months. suffered four bites snake and in all cases admitted to the hospital with symptoms of poisoning the body. In another Read more [...]
M., aged 12, after being bitten by a snake (25 / V 1955) brought to the hospital with complaints of Nakhichevan of palpitations, dizziness, sore left leg, marked weakness. Comrades made tight above and below the waist area and is bitten by the bite made cuts. When you receive a waist shot, entered protivozmeinuyu serum and symptomatic agents.
Along with the development of edema in the extremities places marked petechial hemorrhages. Developed on the shin necrosis (Fig. 14). On day 10 was discharged in good condition for outpatient wound.
III., 36, a helicopter pilot, 27 / V 1974 on the viper Read more [...]
Poison each snake is a complex system of antigens separated by specific precipitin band (Grasset is a., 1956). By analyzing иммуноэлектрофоретического J. X. Turakulov and DN Sahib (1970) identified a viper venoms and ephah from 30 to 35 antigens that are resistant to various influences. So tiokarbamilirovanie cobra venom with fluorescein sharply reduced toxicity of the poison, without affecting its antigenic properties. By inhibiting some Asian snake venom digidrotiolovoy acid obtained toxoid, non-toxic, but retains the antigenic properties. The immunized animals Read more [...]
Widespread serum also prevented exaggerated the danger of its use. So, AT Berdiyev (1972) confirms the efficacy of therapeutic sera, but, referring to its scarcity and the development of serum sickness, recommends the use of novocaine and zinc. Particularly alarming is post Campbel (1967), which, in recommending serotherapy, emphasizes, however, that in 48% of cases due to its use of observed side effects, among them 3% of potentially fatal anaphylaxis, which can not even prevent adrenalin and histamine antagonists, previously introduced in order to reduce adverse reactions. That's what Read more [...]
Therapeutic serum recognized as a very effective means of local scientists (EN Pavlovsky, 1931 FF Talyzin et al, 1955 MN Sultanov, 1958, 1963, 1969, 1973, etc.), as well as scientists from different countries (Gitter is a., 1959; Detrait is a., 1959; Reid, 1962, 1963; Trethewie, 1970, Mohamed is a., 1973; Tu Anthoni, Salafranca, 1974, etc.). With a wide range of specific neutralizes actions protivozmeinaya serum to neutralize the whole rational dose poison (MN Sultanov, 1959; Carey, Wright, 1962, etc.), rapidly suppresses its overall effect (MN Sultanov, 1958, 1963 ; Reid, 1962) and eliminates Read more [...]
Parrish (1957), citing data on 71 cases of death from snake bites, explains their occurrence late medical care, localization bite, etc., although it is, judging from the examples, no excuse. Alarming message Oliver (1958) that all cases of bite Oxyuranus scutellatus in Australia and New Guinea are fatal.
Ooslburg (1973), assuming sufficient to treat bites dose of serum in 1 or 2 units., In some severe cases, advises 10. Uncertainty in the choice of the dose of serum can be explained by 30% of deaths in Suriname for bites of snakes of the family Elapidae and Crotalidae.
Can you justify the high Read more [...]
As can be seen, the use of therapeutic serum after 23 and 26 h after the bite caused a beneficial effect; treatment delayed due to the constrictions and cuts, complicating the disease. Of course, the sooner the serum is used, the lower the risk of toxic effects in organs and systems. However, given the duration of the poison (3-5 days) especially untreated (Ghitis, Bonelli, 1963), and then later use the serum gives a beneficial effect (Ya Po, Perry, 1960). The use of therapeutic serum 2 patients (100 ml) at 7 and 8 h after the bite of sea snakes quickly eliminate symptoms of poisoning (Reid, Read more [...]
Diphtheria throat - an infectious disease caused by a stick Leffler. Most often it occurs in children aged 2 to 6 years. The incubation period of 2 to 7 days. Distinguish between light and heavy forms of diphtheria. Mild form of diphtheria (localized) often occurs under the guise of follicular or lacunar tonsillitis, with the difference that the temperature of the patient may be mild, but in the adult, even normal.
In the throat in this form of diphtheria defined grayish or yellowish raids on moderately congested and swollen tonsil. The attacks are usually distributed on the bow and the soft Read more [...]
Thymol test - sample to determine the functional state of the liver. It is based on the property of a saturated solution of thymol veronalovom buffer, pH 7.8 to give a serum turbidity. Turbidity is greater, the higher the serum gamma globulin (while falling albumin). Turbidity is usually determined by nephelometric, comparing turbidity turbidity test with a series of standard suspensions of barium sulfate, one of which is taken as one. Normally turbidity is from 0 to 4.7 units. Increased rates of thymol show an increase in the blood concentration? -,? - And?-Globulins and lipoproteins, which Read more [...]
Encephalitic symptoms may occur against the background of other manifestations of serum sickness or develop independently of them in 3-12 days after the injection of therapeutic serum. Severity of encephalitic reactions varies widely. In mild cases, there are only moderate meningeal phenomena, transient nuclear paresis of cranial nerve (oculomotor, facial, auditory, etc.), alone or in various combinations. The greatest danger is the loss of branches (especially the return) of the vagus nerve.
More serious complications of serum therapy should include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome Read more [...]
Serum sickness - Allergic reactions, which develops in response to parenteral introduction foreign protein (whey) and characterized by rash, arthralgia, edema, lymphadenitis, fever and other symptoms. During serum sickness depends on the quality and quantity of injected serum. The pathogenesis of the disease is the reaction of antigen (whey protein) with the antibodies formed in the body in response to a foreign protein (see allergy). The severity of lesions may range from mild functional changes in the circulatory system to organic vascular and tissue lesions (redness, stasis, bleeding, serous Read more [...]
Serotherapy - Is the use of immune sera of animal or human therapeutic purposes in infectious diseases.
Therapeutic immune serum (cm) divided into anti-toxic, anti-microbial and anti-viral.
Serotherapy used in those cases where the infectious agents or toxins have entered the body and the first clinical signs of infection.
The therapeutic effect was dose-dependent and the activity of therapeutic sera, titrated to an international standard in terms of the (ME), the degree of purification, the timing of treatment and the route of administration. The later started serotherapy, the less effective. Read more [...]
Seroprevention (Serum prevention, passive immunization) - early use of immune sera of normal or immune gamma globulin or serum of healthy adults for the prevention of infectious disease.
The best effect is achieved at the earliest possible use of gamma globulin or serum from the time of possible contamination.
In contrast to vaccination (see), when introduced into the body seroprevention serum (see) with antibodies and, therefore, the body almost instantly becomes a more or less resistant to certain infections. In some cases, seroprevention, without notifying the disease, resulting in a decrease Read more [...]