Spasm - Is abnormal muscle contractions associated with an increase in their tone. Spasm is a reflex reaction, depending on the state of the pyramidal system. Active mobility in spasm sharply limited, passive, is also difficult, and for passive limb movements observed increased resistance to having resilient character. For minor muscle movements hypertension can not capture, in which case it becomes more noticeable with sudden movements.
The clinical manifestations of skeletal muscle spasm is to improve muscle tone, determined to touch the muscle tension and visually change their configuration. Read more [...]
Fractures or bottom edge of the acetabulum occur when falling on the area of the greater trochanter or straightened legs, as well as compression of the pelvis.
Symptoms. The victim observed a lot of pain during movements of the hip joint (it should be noted that the fracture without displacement of fragments athlete to walk, leaning on the injured limb). In central hip dislocation when head femur enters the pelvic cavity, and active and passive movements are virtually impossible because of the pain. Observed retraction of the greater trochanter and the relative shortening. Finger study (per Read more [...]
The exhumation and post-mortem examination
A forensic examination of dismembered corpses and skeletal among the most complex and has specific features.
Dismemberment body may Railway injuries with rolling wheels through the human body, plane crashes, explosions of ammunition and explosives, and occasionally in road trauma. In addition, there are the so-called criminal dissection (Fig. 4), when the killer to cover up the crime dismembers the corpse of the victim (sharp objects - a knife, dagger, ax, saw), put in some part, to water, latrines or other areas exposed their disposal.
In the practice Read more [...]
Growth is determined by the long bones of the lower and upper limbs, and the establishment of growth is possible not only for whole long bones, but also on their individual fragments. To do this, first set the entire length of the bone fragment thereof, and then from these data calculate the height of a man. Measurement of bone produced by osteometric tablets. For the calculation of the growth the special table. The accuracy of the growth on them ranges from ± 3-5 cm or more.
If the disposal expert has several long bones belonging to one corpse, use them all to determine the growth that will Read more [...]
Good results in the establishment of bones belonging to a human or animal gives comparative anatomical method, based on the different anatomical and morphological structure of human bones and various species. Bone compared with some bones of the human skeleton and animals.
If you determine that delivered for the study of the body or skeletal remains belong to a man, it is necessary to solve the question of one or more bodies did these objects. If there are all (or almost all) of the dismembered corpse of one, the this resolve the issue by comparing and studying the lines and planes separating Read more [...]
Clinical manifestations of disease rahitopodobnyh basically identical severe rickets, but their distinctive feature is the lack of effect of treatment with vitamin D (hence the same as - vitamin D-resistant rickets).
By rahitopodobnyh diseases carry pseudorickets (see Osteogenic nephropathy), rickets in intestinal infantilism (em. Celiac) and rickets with atresia of bile ducts. Of osteogenic nephropathies distinguished: fosfatdiabet, hypophosphatemic, giperfosfatemichesky rickets and renal acidosis.
Fosfatdiabet - Violation of phosphate reabsorption in the kidney due to insufficiency of the proximal Read more [...]
The cerebellum (cerebellum; synonym small brain) - Part of the brain, providing coordination, muscle tone and balance the body. The cerebellum is located in the posterior fossa of the medulla and the bridge. The cerebellum are the occipital lobes of the brain (see Brain), and between them and the cerebellum tight tent (or schedule) of the cerebellum - process of the dura mater.
Anatomy and Physiology. In M. distinguish upper and lower surfaces of the front and rear edges. Cerebellum consists of the middle part, or worm, and two hemispheres, each of which is divided into three furrows share (see Read more [...]
Traction - the method by eliminating thrust deformations that occur in fractures, sprains, and contractures. There is a one-time extension and permanent. A one-time extension is done by hand and is used mainly for repositioning (see)
fracture fragments, you can immediately get their correct state, but to lock in the position reached must complete traction fixed bandage. At constant (continuous) or traction position fragments of the articular ends of bones gradually getting better, is achieved hold them in place until the fusion of the fracture. Often permanent traction imposed after the simultaneous Read more [...]