Steep climbs, steep descents, narrow winding trails, dips, barely covered fragile snow bridges, treacherous ledges, going from under shingle scree, wrinkled cracked glaciers pose many difficulties. Overcoming them is not only a great physical stress, but sometimes with a significant risk to life and limb.
Therefore, the transition in the mountains requires careful preparation, evaluation forces of each member of the group, quality camping equipment, etc. The planned route should be evaluated in terms of potential natural obstacles and the need to adjust for possible reduce them even by extending Read more [...]
As can be seen from Fig. 4. when driving on snow marked 19 ns. For reasons of all of them together in groups of three practically equivalent.
1. Negligent, careless movement on a simple snow slope 30-40 ° of having sufficient reserve of strength, under normal weather conditions. Qualifying athletes from III level to the masters of sport.
2. Group of high qualification (candidates for the master and the master of sports) admits the failure to simple snow slope directly after work on a difficult route stress (impact of fatigue or high altitude, relaxing after a hard area).
3. Read more [...]
Dress code - storm suit, sweater, warm pants, gloves, warm gloves, hat, goggles, high boots, protective helmet (helmet).
Personal equipment - ASC, two carbine repshnur (5 m), the loop for the descent.
Equipment group - rope core (3 x 30 m), the rope supporting (1x 30 m), avalanche shovel, 5 rifles, spare goggles, backpack for two, first aid kit.
Repetition of previously studied methods of movement of individual vehicles on a snowy terrain. Carried out on a ski slope to 50 m, the slope of 35 - 45 °, with a smooth rolled out the bottom of the uninsured, but subject to the rules of the Read more [...]
Moving from the warm air of the valleys, encountering an obstacle in the form of mountains, rising up on their slopes, creating updrafts. With the rise to the height of the warm air mass is quenched, its relative humidity quickly reaches a value higher than the dew point (ie 100%), and rapidly evolved with the droplets of moisture form cumulonimbus thunderclouds. The interaction of air masses moving in them particles of moisture in the clouds formed electrical charges, which potential relative to another cloud or the ground can be very significant. Its category like no other, promote mountain Read more [...]
metal. device, worn on the shoes (sometimes on skis) to facilitate and ease of movement on the slopes, covered with ice, firn or wet grass, and on the slopes of the solid surface of the conglomerate. The simplest design "K" is an oval frame - base steel sheet thicknesses. 2.5 - 3 mm, located on a path 10 - 14 spikes - the teeth, the shape of the frame has a foot tour. shoe and fastened to it with rubberized cotton or synthetic. belt or a thin metal. cable. Pointy teeth "K." (length approx. 35mm) provide a good grip shoe coated slope allow confident enough to move on a Read more [...]
Tactics - a set of tools and techniques to achieve the goal. The main objective of the tourism campaign - ascent with minimal effort and with maximum safety. Around the two main defining goals depending on the situation, any other goals and objectives, but the choice of tactics they do not have a decisive impact.
Choice of tactics determined by the physical and technical preparation of tourists. It is impossible to build a tactically correct route without considering the actual physical, technical, moral and volitional training team members. Choice of tactics of the campaign carried out Read more [...]
You never thought that a person with any passion, rich in soul? The desire to know more about passion pushes a person to purchase all new theoretical and practical knowledge. By a certain age, having a purpose in life - love of nature and its preservation, I have accumulated experience that gives you access to a new, higher "level" in the hobby. I decided to search for ginseng. Again and re-read a book on healing the root. Malyshev, Grushevitskaya, Elizarov, but I have not enough information and I refer to the old kornevschevikam. It is very difficult to get information Read more [...]
Topographic map - this is a very interesting and extremely deep drawing. The famous Russian traveler Semenov-Tyan-Shansky said so on this occasion, "Map more important than the text, as is often said much brighter, visually and concisely the best text. " And so it is. Each sheet topographic map contains a wealth of material on the disclosure of which would have required hundreds of pages in a book.
Map - a graphical description of the terrain. Just as the letters are made up of individual words and groups of words express thoughts, and by various topographic symbols, arranged Read more [...]
by Dep. sections of the path depends on the nature and characteristics of mountain terrain. Wooded and grassy slopes overcome by shepherds and game trails (usually walking in the warm southern. And app. Slopes), places with sparse vegetation and a thick layer of soil. On trails or flat surface moving at a steady pace, slow at the beginning and end of each transition. The feet are almost parallel, the foot is placed on the heel with a "rolling" on the toe to the top of the next step. The center of gravity of the body with a backpack must move vertically as possible - small hills and Read more [...]
Ice mass by gravity flow on an inclined surface of the bottom of mountain valleys. Rate of flow of glaciers can range from a few meters per year to 300 meters per day.
Glaciers never stop its movement.
Tourists often freeze in admiration before the magical paintings, which are ice-falls, hanging glaciers, seracs bizarre accumulation of gaping blackness cracks. But the blue-green ice poses a great danger. Since the movement of the glacier is at any time, at any time of the year, often you can see how to ice falls and hanging glaciers of the blue, for no apparent reason from the main mass Read more [...]
The mountain is a serious danger of an avalanche. Most often, they occur on slopes with a gradient of 20 to 60 °, and especially within the 30-45 °, usually within 24 hours after a snowfall.
No avalanches affect the temperature, soil conditions, and sound. When you are in avalanche-prone areas, it is necessary to know these things. If possible, avoid locations where the steep slope of the newly fallen snow. After the main avalanche recommended that you wait 24 hours. Most victims of avalanches and caused them ourselves.
Rain or temperature after the snowfall greatly increases the risk of Read more [...]
On ice and firn slopes of up to 15 - 20 ° slope climbers climb in boots Bound Tricon. On the steeper slopes Tricon do not hold, and must wear a cat. Walking on cats requires a well-developed, flexible ligaments and muscles of the ankles, smooth movements, attention to every step.
When walking in cats should be raised a few feet above and set them wider than during normal walking, not to cling to the teeth for the irregularities of the slope or his pants and socks. It should be possible to go more smoothly, keeping your feet on the ice sharp jerks, not hit the hardest cats in slope and tight Read more [...]
Preparing for the self is to conduct a number of activities to test their readiness to overcome the obstacles. These include checking personal equipment (availability, quality, testing it in action), check personal flotation devices (for water tourists - an inflatable vest, belts, wheels, for a mountain tourist - avalanche cords, etc.), mental repetition of a plan of their own actions needed to overcome obstacles, to evaluate the options of failing at the obstacle and emergency action to prevent injuries, general mobilization of physical and mental strength to overcome obstacles.
Lanyard at overcoming Read more [...]
One day me an unpleasant incident. After him, I was about to give up thoughts hikes. I then led a group of newcomers to the Caucasus.
The route was quite complex. We descended from the ridge without trails. Gently passed the rock, slowly descended the scree, entered the forest. The slope was steep, densely overgrown with trees and underbrush. In the forest, rocky outcrops - stone cliffs above the hidden bush. We cautiously down the steeply dipping bed of the stream. Sometimes we had to get out of bed, avoiding high levels of waterfalls.
We had to think about accommodation on the slopes, Read more [...]
The most favorable structure for transport over icy and snow-6-8 members. Used for the preservation of alpenstocks, ski poles, on the dense icy - ice axes. When lifting the two men go to the lower outposts throughout the rope, fastened, driving in the snow or ski pole alpenstock. The rest are on the sides of the sled. At the command of "pull" the upper pull, and the bottom to avoid jerk pripodymayut sled, pushing them forward. When there are 2 or 3 m for convergence accompanying the rise, taking escort, then the top repeated again the same techniques. When all this is doing downhill Read more [...]
Instructions and reminders for air crews provide that in the event of an emergency landing of people should stay at the landing site before the arrival of aid. This recommendation is quite fair in the high latitudes is almost axiomatic. And it's not only in the fact that in the vast expanses of the polar plane easier to detect than inconspicuous human figures. People who decided to high-latitude expedition, expect fierce frost, hurricane winds, blinding snowstorms, impassable ice ridges and open water of the Central Arctic Basin or mazes huge cracks on the high glaciers of Antarctica. Overcoming Read more [...]
Avalanches also inseparable from the mountains, as storms from the seas and oceans. Mountain residents call them "white death" is not accidental. Calm, silent snow slope can suddenly turn into a seething, roaring cauldron. Giant shaft snow, dust, debris, rocks and trees swept away everything in its path, and hide from it is often not possible. Sometimes the amount of avalanches in the hundreds of thousands and even millions of cubic meters. Picking up speed and mass, an avalanche every moment becoming more powerful, bringing death and destruction.
One of the most terrible tragedies Read more [...]
Dress code - storm or jogging suit, gloves, hat, high boots, protective helmet (helmet) - as required and the nature of the relief for employment on talus and moraine.
Personal equipment - ice-ax.
Equipment group - first aid kit.
Introductory talk - is carried out before going to class.
Moving along the mountain trails. Explain how traffic on mountain trails, driving mode, stop to rest, tempo and rhythm of the small group and training unit, water schedule, what should be the clothes on the march. When moving around the mountain relief should know the features of walking under Read more [...]
(French for horizontal, from the Greek. Horizons, b. Deaths horizontos, letters. - Bounding) curves for Geography. map connecting points of terrain with the same height above sea level and give an idea of the relief of the earth's surface. G. is a section of the projection area uronennymi surfaces given height. When you create topographic cards intersecting horizontal planes carried at regular intervals in height, called vertical interval, to the paradise strictly conditional map scale (the larger the scale, the lower the height of the section), and the resulting steep section line projected Read more [...]
The next group of techniques, the most critical of the National Assembly, we refer to methods of movement of the ice-snow slopes (see Fig. 4b), where often there is such a typical situation.
Group climbs on a snow couloir and in its upper part, at the exit to the rock ridge is gradually steep ice-snow slope. Ice ax less punches of the snow, but the group does not change the way of recovery and the method of insurance, hoping to pass the course is difficult, but a short section and go for reliable rock ridge. The next moment slippage presenter who can not samozaderzhatsya on ice. The result Read more [...]