Historically, the development of the vast expanses of Siberia and the European North motivated by the desire to produce furs. One of the main objects of the fur trade in Russia for centuries was a squirrel. Squirrel Fishing inhabitants of Siberia in the nineteenth century poetically describes AA Cherkasov in the book "Sketches of Eastern Siberia." Photo Tambako The Jaguar / flickr.com Even some twenty years ago, owners of huskies from the cities of European Russia went to Siberia, specifically in order to earn extra money on the fishery protein. And our hunter with Read more [...]
Get-go Madam Michelle Obama's Tweed Household garden is the up-to-the-minute dupe of furloughs at the Subject Parks Serve during the overtone federal politics closedown. Squirrels get infest the 1,500 square-foot diagram on the S Lawn, feeding aging mushrooms, tomatoes, and peppers."Veracious now, the many squirrels who endure at the Tweed Theatre look to let gotten evening more fast-growing," writes Eddie Gehman Kohan on her Obama Foodorama blog. "They're now kids in a sugarcoat floor, gorging themselves."When the closing began, NPS gardeners were consistent to but pee and Read more [...]
Instance by Jason Daley Barbaric RegisterExample by Jason Daley POP Test A footloose lecturer wants to cognize: What's the "Proscribed Terpsichore"? The idiom, popularized during the late-eighties lambada furor, which spawned the should-have-been-banned celluloid The Prohibited Dancing, can really utilise to a act of dances that bear been unlawful. The hula-hula was blockaded in Hawaii for practically of the Nineteenth hundred by Christian missionaries because of its "heathen" spiritual associations; the tango went clandestine in Argentina in the mid–Twentieth Read more [...]
Behavior. In early spring, in the first days after leaving normal after hibernation, ground squirrels most of life in the warmest time of the day. During this period, the most active are the males in connection with the rut. In late spring, during the birth and feeding young, young out to the surface and intense zhironakopleniya adult males, gophers Vital activity from morning to evening. At this time, males, lactating females and young are very active, a pregnant female, on the contrary, very careful. In early summer, during the settlement of young and hibernation adults profit Vital activity Read more [...]
Proteins - typical forest animals (body length of 20-30 cm, weight - up to 1 kg). Of the characteristic features include tassels at the ends of the ears (longer in winter) and a bushy tail. Because the thick hair covering the tail, placed at the side, the tail seems flat, its length is slightly shorter body length. When squirrels jump from tree to tree, or jump off the ground, it is the tail wheel and a parachute.
Dyeing wool of these animals depends on the season and geographical habitat. For example, the East Siberian and Altai protein coat color in the summer dark brown, almost black, and Read more [...]
Yellow gophers different subspecies differ in terms of puberty. As we pointed out (1955), in South Kazakhstan and Chu valley squirrels participate in reproduction after the first winter hibernation at the age of 11-12 months, and in the northern parts of the range - after the second hibernation. Smaller subspecies are more hasty than larger ones. It should, however, be noted that the number of participants in the semi-mature females breeding ground squirrels from the south-eastern part of the area does not exceed 9.5% (Kydyrbaev, 1959). In males, puberty occurs later, so they are involved in Read more [...]
Changes in population. Changes in the number of red-squirrel studied by many authors (Martin, 1922; Vinogradov, 1924 Zverev, 1927 Belyaev, 1955 Tolebaev, 1958 Zaleski, 1962), and these studies focused mainly on the influence of agriculture on the dynamics of their population. It was found that the maximum value for the gophers have plowed steppes and arable land gradually accustom small animals. So cheeked ground squirrel in the twenties, thirties, occupy only the marginal zone of crops and did not stay there for long slumber. "After the development of virgin lands for settlement of his Read more [...]
Infectious diseases. Epizootic and epidemiological significance. Diseases of the gopher is not studied. Epizootic significance red-squirrel is not clear.
Parasites and diseases caused by them. Pas razitofauna this gopher is not studied.
In the literature, there are indications of a general nature that the main enemy of the squirrel are polecat, Fox and Korsak, of raptors - various eagles, kites and harriers. Young squirrels can destroy crows and gulls (Belyaev, 1955, Tolebaev, 1958).
In the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia and north-east of Kazakhstan remains of red-cheeked Read more [...]
One of the important ecological features yellow gopher is summer and winter sleep, which lasts about eight to nine months a year, and it is peculiar to the whole area. It attracted the attention of many biologists and physiologists (Kashkarov and Lane Co-fencing, 1927 Kalabuhov, 1946 Bulls and Slonim, 1949, and others), in varying degrees, who described hibernation and explain this complex and interesting phenomenon. The complexity of it is above all in the fact that not all squirrels are equally and simultaneously respond to the changing environment, so not all look the same sleep soundly and Read more [...]
Epizootologicheskoei epidemiological significance. Within the Kazakh part of the area median gopher acts as a carrier of several diseases - tularemia, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis (Galouzeau and Rementsova, 1959).
Abjection tularemia from the body indicates the presence of gophers in Kazakhstan steppe and desert-names foci of tularemia in which the specified rodent mites and desert Rhipicephalus ritSho and Rh. schulzei are the main carriers and transmitters of infection.
This gopher was keeper of Leptospira in southern Kazakhstan.
In the semi-arid zone of a selected Read more [...]
The fastest way to travel - flight. In the forest, more than anywhere else, winged creatures. It is home to a huge number of birds and bats. However, in the forest razverneshsya. Swift-winged Swifts have no business in a thick tangle of branches. Their long wings will be a hindrance. Good fliers live mainly on the "roof" and fly through the trees. So come and crumbs martins nesting in the trees and giant eagles, harpy-like South American obezyanoedov. But these large hawks, like owls, unlike most birds of prey relatively short wings and a long tail. So flight enough maneuverability Read more [...]
Terms of bedding and wake squirrels depend on a variety of reasons - geographical, climatic and landscape (topography, slope exposure in the mountains, etc.).
Sleep long-tailed ground squirrel in the Altai starts in September - October. Sometimes squirrels occur much earlier because of the burning of vegetation on the slopes of the southern exposure. So, in 1948, most of the adult squirrels did not appear on the surface, starting from the second half of August. From hibernation in that area squirrels wake up in late March - mid April. Consequently, the duration of hibernation of ground Read more [...]
Field signs. Red-hot gopher - The average zverok generally gray in color, leading exclusively diurnal. It is larger in size small and medium, and several squirrels coming to the big and yellow. Has a long tail with a black subapical band. Notable are the dark (reddish) spots on her cheeks. Often takes a characteristic pose a column, especially in the summer months with high vegetation in the steppe zone. In this case stands out terete cylindrical body and see a big, like all squirrels, almond-shaped eyes. A careful examination of the subject zverok is sideways to him. Voice - loud two trisyllabic Read more [...]
Behavior (habits). Time greatest affection to his gopher burrows moleno consider the period between the release of their slumber before the breeding season, which lasts no more than five to eight days, when the active part of the population are adult males who had awakened earlier than females. With the advent of female animals increases the activity even more. Attachment to the burrows of females observed during childbirth and rearing young (late April and early May). Shortly after the start of a normal young to settle them when animals exhibit a highly visible activity. As a result, time Read more [...]
Behavior. Clawed gopher active all year round. By type of mobility this animal similar to other life forms desert rodents - jerboa. Tropleniya method after rains revealed that he goes in search of food from the holes at a distance of 800-1000 m Disturbed and persecuted individual person can run up to 20 - 30 min and make transitions to 3 km. Surface activity of these rodents in the winter, due to foraging, almost stopped. The lack of food supplies for the winter causes them to enter the period of apprenticeship in the most adverse weather, so the difference in the daily activities in different Read more [...]
Data on feeding red-squirrel Kazakhstan has only in Tolebaeva AK (1958), which during the active period of life gophers analyzed 870 stomachs, looked cheek pouches have caught animals and study them eat. As a result, they compiled a list of herbs eaten gopher, containing up to 30 titles. The most preferred were:
Astragalus espartsetovy - Astragalus onobrychis,
alyssum line - Alyssum lineatum,
buckwheat bird - Polygonum aviculare,
Grechishnikov ordinary - P. patulum,
winter cress - Descurainia Sophia,
klopovnik weed - Lepidium ruderale,
prostrate summer cypress Read more [...]
Sexual maturity occurs ruddy ground squirrels to the age of 11 months, although young later litters have time to grow until frost only half the growth in adults. Such individuals, even without sufficient fat reserves, with a relatively long hibernation and next spring are involved in reproduction.
Hong animals occurs soon after you wake up from their winter slumber. The male sex organs in etoschvremya markedly increased. For example, according to the MD Zverev (1930), in Western Siberia testes 23 gophers, caught in the midst of heat (1 April - 10 May), reached a value of 14X9 mm and ranged Read more [...]
By catches, tropleny and visual observations in the settlements of the animal registered 17 species of rodents, five - predatory, one insectivore (eared hedgehog), two - birds, some reptiles and invertebrates. The closest relationship to the yellow ground squirrel burrows are animals, arrange them in their holes, - the average ground squirrel (Betpak Dala South Balkhash), small gopher (West Betpak Dala), clawed ground squirrel and a large gerbil (Muyunkum), red- gerbil (Or the left bank) and Tamarisk midday gerbil. Of the four-legged predators - polecat, of birds - Gavel-dancer and less - Little Read more [...]
Strength Long-tailed ground squirrel depends on direct exposure of the population of climatic factors, the activity of predators, various epizootic and, in addition, the intensity of reproduction - the participation of females and offspring size.
Unlike many of his relatives, the number of ground squirrels in the country is relatively stable and low. The low number of species within Kazakhstan can be explained, first of all, finding it on the periphery of the area and, in addition, the conditions of existence in the highlands. In the latter case gopher have low fertility due to good feed Read more [...]
Changes in population. Average gopher inherent fluctuations in the number of duration of a few tens of years, periods of depression, which in some parts of the range are manifested in different ways.
Our long-term steady-state studies, combined with a route studies have shown that in the Betpak Dala after 1950 there was a sharp increase in the number of ground squirrels, while in 1938 it was very low (Beloslyudov, 1948). Low number of this animal in the 30's, is one of the reasons for not including it in the "core fauna" mammals Betpak Dala.
Pointing to cause sharp Read more [...]