ligament is often accompanied by their partial and sometimes complete rupture. The most commonly injured ankle. In this extension is important (although sometimes difficult) to exclude ligament rupture, with a rum continued participation in the campaign is impossible. In the absence of the gap is less intense pain, decreases in 1 - 2 day (at break, on the contrary, strengthens), less pronounced and swelling of the joint. In addition, the victim, though in pain, but it can go. First aid for ankle sprains: impose a bandage in the form of "eight", put the victim with one foot and the Read more [...]
Bees and similar insects often zhalyatsya in July or August. Bee stings dangerous because not only can bee leave its stinger in the wound, but also necessarily wasted in the bite venom. There are both domestic bees, which are specifically bred for apiaries and wild forest bees. The latter are more dangerous because their venom is more toxic than poison home, and they are said to be many times the "meaner" domestic bees.
Bee venom is able to provide the most diverse effects on the human body. One bite can cause short-term pain, redness and swelling, which subsides after a few hours. Read more [...]
Injury - A mechanical damage tissue with no apparent violation of their anatomical integrity. Injury arises from the rapid and immediate action traumatic factor - often blunt impact, occurs predominantly on the exposed parts of the body. Injury internal organs (heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, etc.), usually seen in severe injury.
For injury are most characteristic changes in the blood vessels - broken permeability of their walls, often accompanied by swelling and bleeding into the surrounding soft tissue - bruising, hematoma (see) or in the joint cavity (see haemarthrosis), chest (see Hemothorax), Read more [...]
M., aged 27, hornet wasp sting on the tip of the middle finger right hand. Burning pain was growing by the minute. Soon developed edema, headache, after 25-30 min - itchy skin stung on the hand and face, then swelling of the lips and eyelids, difficulty breathing. Due to the deteriorating condition of patients admitted to hospital. OBJECTIVE: swelling of the face, lips, eyelids, tongue, pharyngeal mucosa rings, larynx, on the site of sting - swelling the size of 5X4 cm and redness. Rhythmic pulse, 108 beats per minute. Blood pressure 85/60 mm Hg. Art. In the lungs, especially in the lower Read more [...]
Poisoned bees and wasps characterized by the development of diverse, often severe clinical manifestations. It must be emphasized that, in contrast to the poison of other animals, nature and severity of these symptoms to a certain extent depend on individual sensitivity (reaction) of the body to the venom of bees and wasps. A slight dose of poison can cause severe anaphylactic reaction of the organism, which develops within a few minutes, rarely - during the day and with less severe symptoms. The degree of severity depends on the site of injection and the amount of venom injected, time of day Read more [...]
Local manifestations of poisoning differ polymorphism: a third of patients were significantly more common congestion (43%), less swelling, pain and burning (JA Thankful). Meanwhile, some researchers (A. Finkel, 1929 I. Moszkowski, AI Okhotina 1945, PI Marikovskii, 1956, and others) have noted the lack of local phenomena, others (GN Samokhin, 1933, and others), speaking of skin changes at the bite site, point to the emergence in some cases gangrene and ulcers (0,6 X0, 2 cm), which, according to JA gratitude, are the result of secondary infection. Due to the fact that the poison karakurt has antibacterial Read more [...]
Tenosynovitis - An inflammation of the synovial tendon sheath. Distinguish tenosynovitis infectious and aseptic. Meet both the "dry form" and exudative, including purulent tenosynovitis. Emphasizing different krepitiruyuschie and constrictive and brucellosis tenosynovitis.
Thecal abscess most often develops on the hands in the synovial vagina finger in the transition process from a purulent subcutaneous tissue (see felon, tendinous).
In other parts of the body can result from tendonitis injury synovial sheaths. Symptoms: uniform swelling, sharp pain when moving and pressure along Read more [...]
Serum sickness - Allergic reactions, which develops in response to parenteral introduction foreign protein (whey) and characterized by rash, arthralgia, edema, lymphadenitis, fever and other symptoms. During serum sickness depends on the quality and quantity of injected serum. The pathogenesis of the disease is the reaction of antigen (whey protein) with the antibodies formed in the body in response to a foreign protein (see allergy). The severity of lesions may range from mild functional changes in the circulatory system to organic vascular and tissue lesions (redness, stasis, bleeding, serous Read more [...]
I. Edema in congestive failure circulation (heart OA) due to:
a) inadequate blood flow in the kidney, and the weakening of glomerular filtration;
b) increased production aldosterone ADH and c) retention of sodium and water in the body, and d) an increase in pressure in the capillaries and increased extravasation.
II. Renal edemas result from: a) hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia due to increased glomerular permeability and protein loss, and b) increased production of aldosterone and ADH;
c) the sodium and water retention in the body.
III. The leading mechanisms of ascites due to cirrhosis Read more [...]
Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of breast cancer is usually found in women aged 45 to 60 years, along with better treatment outcomes, and increase the number of healthy, under the supervision of oncology 5 years or more, in recent years one of the highest popped problem of rehabilitation. Restoration of function after treatment and return to normal work and family life, the removal of psychological material caused by the disease itself as well as mutilation, the need of some restrictions and compliance for several years - all these questions are in the concept of medical, psychological Read more [...]
Fig. 8. Gap (the so-called fracture) of the corpora cavernosa of the penis.Damage to the penis divided into open and closed. To open carry mostly cut and gunshot wounds varying from light to tangent to the complete crushing penis or detach it.
Treatment of open injuries of the penis is the primary surgical treatment of wounds with maximum preservation of tissue. By the close of injury includes injuries, violation of the penis, sometimes called dislocation and fracture. "Fracture" of the penis, ie, the break of the corpora cavernosa, occurs at high flexion penis at the time of erection. Read more [...]
Acute suppurative mastoiditis usually develops as a result of acute suppurative otitis media (see), sometimes when you receive by hematogenous infection. The successful treatment of suppurative otitis media with antibiotics average frequency of its complications, including mastoiditis, fell sharply.
Reasons mastoiditis: high virulence pathogens of otitis media (often hemolytic streptococcus), weakening the body's resistance after prior or concomitant acute infectious disease, poor drainage of purulent focus in the tympanic cavity in the absence of perforation of the tympanic membrane, closing Read more [...]
Scrotum - Musculocutaneous sacciform formation of the anterior perineum in men. Scrotal cavity is divided into two parts, is made by the testes and their appendages and spermatic cord.
Scrotum is a modified (reduced) part of the anterior abdominal wall consists of a thin, pigmented, with thinning hair and skin fleshy shell - a thick, tightly spliced with leather, consisting of connective tissue with a lot of muscle and elastic fibers. Between the shells of the scrotum, testes, epididymis and spermatic cord are connective tissue bands and loose fibers, which are vessels. Lymph flowing from the Read more [...]
Along with antimicrobials proteases are extremely effective for respiratory diseases. Their fibrinolytic and mucolytic action leads to a rapid thinning of viscous secretions and exudates, which contributes to their removal. Continuous stimulation of the respiratory epithelium sticks to it products of inflammation retards the regeneration of epithelial cells. Also, secrets, diluting all the input drugs weaken their effect. Enzyme therapy is effective in laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia: quicker regression of inflammatory changes of the mucosa.
Pulmonary abscess or empyema shows the introduction Read more [...]
Pastoznost - expressed mild swelling of the skin. When pastosity marked pallor and reduced skin elasticity, palpation there testovatoy. To identify pastosity You can use the sample McClure - Aldrich. The essence of this test is that the blister formed by intradermal administration of isotonic sodium chloride solution dissolves more quickly than edema. While sucking blister appropriate in healthy adults, about 60 minutes. At pastosity shortened.
See also edema.
Pasty (From Lat. Pasta - dough) - a pathological state tissues, mainly the skin and subcutaneous tissue, accompanied by pallor and Read more [...]
The clinical picture. The incubation period lasts from 3 to 35 days, an average of 16 days. The disease is the type of acute infection with a short prodromal period during which marked malaise, poor appetite, chilling, headache. In children, the initial period may be accompanied by repeated vomiting, twitching, meningeal phenomena. After 1-2 days the temperature rises, a sense of tension and drawing pain in the parotid area, noise and ringing in the ears, pain when chewing. In front of the ear appears rapidly growing swelling, filling retromandibulyarnoe space. In the next few days, swelling Read more [...]
Members of this family are less dangerous to humans than vipers, adders or rattlesnake. Some kolyub Rid poisonous secret quite toxic, and under certain conditions can cause severe poisoning. Especially dangerous to the African species, such as bu-melang, tree snake, ground viper.
Periodically appear in the literature details kolyubrid bites and symptoms they cause poisoning. In most cases the lesion is characterized by a local phenomenon - swelling, pain, local hemorrhage. These symptoms are described in reported cases of bites of the South American runner, colorful runner, eskulapovoy snake. Read more [...]
In hypothyroidism thyroid almost palpable. In patients with marked dry skin, brittle hair and nails, drowsiness, weakness, memory loss, weakness, low body temperature, bradycardia, slowed speech (language as it prevents the mouth). In addition, hypothyroidism, often worn form, there are depression, decreased physical and mental activity, chill. When menopause syndrome there is an increase in TSH more than 2-fold compared to the level of the hormone healthy postmenopausal women. These are the typical symptoms of hypothyroidism, but often there are less severe form of thyroid cancer, for which Read more [...]
Gangrenous balanoposthitis (Balanoposthitis gangraenosa) (Fig. 4), Gram-negative anaerobes cause vibrionopodobnye (Vas. fusiformis) in symbiosis with spirochetes occurring on the genitals and in the oral cavity (Spirochaeta perfringens, etc.). The disease occurs more often after sexual intercourse (36-48 h.), Rarely can develop spontaneously. There is pain, burning, swelling of the glans penis and foreskin, pus from the opening prepuce, high temperature (39-40 °), nausea, general weakness, headache. At the beginning of the disease on the inner layer of the foreskin due to necrosis of the epithelium Read more [...]
Changes characterized by swelling of the aorta, basophils, and calcification lipoidozom wall. In the myocardium detected swelling of the stroma, vascular engorgement, salt deposits of lime - calcifications (Fig. 20). Muscle cells were swollen, eosin staining on some parts of the observed disappearance of myofibrils, the homogenization of the cytoplasm. In other parts of the muscle cells were seen large perinuclear vacuoles. When stained by Selye eosinophilic regions will fuchsinophilia were PAS-positive, gave a positive reaction to fibrin. Around the focus of eosinophilia was most pronounced Read more [...]