Tumors | The survival encyclopedia

Experimental study of tumors

Translated for the first time successfully tumor adult dogs, puppies MA Novinsky (1876). Since then, for the experimental study of tumors was used a number of different methods and research proceeded in a variety of ways. Currently, you can cause a wide variety of animal species O. and locations with different agents. Transplantation of tumors. Distinguish auto-, iso-, homo-and geterotransplantatsiyu O. Autotransplantation - transplantation O. same animal, which it originated, but in another place of his body - usually fails and can ensure the success of further transplantation to other animals. Read more [...]
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Inflammation and swelling of the jaw

Inflammatory diseases of the jaws usually associated with the spread of infection from carious teeth and are called odontogenic. These include: 1) periodontitis (see teeth), 2) abscess - inflammation of the periosteum, and 3) odontogenic osteomyelitis, often develops in the lower jaw when the penetration of infection in the cancellous bone. The beginning and development of acute odontogenic osteomyelitis stormy, with high fever, chills, significant changes in the blood. In addition to the patient's tooth in the process quickly involved healthy. Very often there is an abscess and cellulitis Read more [...]
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Surgical treatment of tumors of the pancreas

Adenoma (islet adenoma) of the pancreas to be surgical treatment, the more that the suspect tumor it may be malignant. Apply enucleation of the tumor, resection of the tail part of the gland along with the tumor, and sometimes with the spleen, subtotal and total pancreatectomy. The operation was performed under endotracheal anesthesia with nitrous oxide, muscle relaxants. In 25-35% of cases of hyperinsulinism adenoma can not be found. For small solitary adenoma tumor enucleate subcapsular or together with the capsule within healthy tissue. Sometimes the bottom of the tumor was excised with a Read more [...]
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Blastomogenic chemical substances

A certain number of agents belonging to the different classes of chemical compounds that can cause cancer and other malignant and benign tumors (see carcinogens). Blastomogenic substances under the experimental conditions can be administered to animals in different ways. The most accepted introduction Under the skin, the mouth, lubrication of the skin. Perhaps the introduction of intratracheal, intravenous and directly into the tissue of various organs. Blastomogenic substances in experiments administered dissolved in vegetable oils, animal fats, and for lubrication of the skin - in benzene, Read more [...]
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The study of blood coagulation in patients with cancer maxillofacial

The literature insufficiently functional status issues of coagulation in patients with malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region. Incipient growth of malignant tumors of maxillofacial area increases the number of surgical interventions, which are often complicated by postoperative venous thromboembolism. It is known that cancer is often the cause of venous thrombosis, due to changes in the quality of the blood vessel wall (BI Winkies, 1951 A. Abrikosov, 1953). Malignant tumors are the producers of the decay products of the tissues that, in addition to toxic effects on blood and the vessel Read more [...]
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Removal of tumors of the cerebellum

Special attention to the examination of the posterior fossa should be paid to the position of the cerebellar tonsils. Of tumors, cysts or abscesses hemispheres M. tonsils low omitted and reach arch of atlas, and sometimes bow II cervical vertebra. Amygdala on the affected side is lowered below, often enlarged, goes past the halfway line, partially and sometimes completely covers the second amygdala. When tumors M. worm, especially the middle and lower sections, providing even pressure on both tonsils, they are symmetrically left out, but the propagation of the tumor or cyst worm M. predominantly Read more [...]
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Statistics of human tumors

Statistics of human tumors (Morbidity and mortality). Data on mortality from tumors obtained from materials of medical registration of causes of death that exists in all developed countries. Statistical materials in developing countries are less reliable than data developed countries. The information collected on the incidence of tumors in a limited number of countries. The main prerequisite for the successful development of morbidity statistics O. is a toll-free state or public health care to patients, O., organized by state or public health organizations. In USSR accounting benign diseases Read more [...]
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Means and methods of radiotherapy

Upon irradiation of the external sources of X-rays are generated by machines and tubes of different types. To influence the tumor with direct access to radiation that is located on the body surface or in a cavity communicating with the surface of the orifices (mouth, throat, vagina), their X-ray device, designed for 30-60 square meters. Radiation generated with relatively small voltage is absorbed predominantly tumor tissue, provided that it is exposed to a short distance from the source (3-5 cm). Some value for exposure superficial tumors are preparations of beta-active phosphorus (P32) and Read more [...]
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Sarcoma - Malignant tumor, consisting of immature connective tissue on the cut has pinkish-white color, resembling fish-meat. Sarcoma has the features characteristic of tumors and cancer: infiltrative growth with destruction of adjacent tissues, recurrence after removal, early metastasis to spread into the lungs (in Kaposi extremities, head, neck, trunk) and liver (with sarcoma of the abdominal cavity). Metastases spread mainly by blood stream (50% can be found in the lymph nodes). Sarcomas in fast current ulcerate, causing repeated bleeding, accompanied by cachexia. Sarcomas account for less Read more [...]
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Sarcolysin (Sarcolysinum; List A) - an antitumor agent. Apply with seminoma and mixed testicular tumors, retikulosarkome, bone Ewing tumors, multiple myeloma, ovarian tumors, etc. Assign Sarcolysin into adults weighing 60 - 70 kg from 0.03 to 0.05 g, with a weight of less than 50 kg and children to 0.0005 - 0.0007 g per 1 kg of body weight once a week, only 4-7 steps. When tumors complicated effusion peritoneal or pleural cavity, can be administered in cavity 0.02 g in the form of a freshly prepared solution of 1 week. Higher dose for adults - 0.05 g 1 in 7 days. Sarcolysin contraindicated Read more [...]
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Damaging inflammation and swelling of salivary glands

Damage to the salivary glands can arise from a gunshot wound or cut or causing bruises, lacerations. Most often damaged parotid gland. It often are injured facial nerve and the external carotid artery. The continuity of the facial nerve can sometimes be restored by sewing it all in the wound. To stop bleeding apply a pressure bandage or tight tamponade wound. The glandular tissue and separate the fascia covering the gland impose knobby joints of catgut. When wound sutured wound duct outside and long-draining wound on the inside, and create conditions for the outflow of saliva in the mouth. Read more [...]
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Spinal cord abscess

Tumors occur at any age. In relation to the spinal cord, they are extracerebral (extramedullary), developing from the roots, meninges and blood vessels, and intracerebral (intramedullary), situated in the substance spinal cord. Extramedullary tumors can be placed over the dura (epidural) or below it (subdural). By the nature of the tumor are more often benign - such as neuromas and meningiomas. May appear malignant primary tumors, metastasis of cancer and sarcoma. Spinal cord abscess clinically manifested progressively increasing compartment syndrome spinal cord, the level of which is determined Read more [...]
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Disease seleznki

The structure of the spleen Research methods spleen Damaged spleen Wandering spleen (Mobile, offset) usually occurs in the general visceroptosia or an increase in the spleen and weak ligaments, fixing it. When a wandering spleen, patients may feel the weight and small pain in the left abdomen, worse when breathing. In the absence of complaints wandering spleen detected incidentally on palpation. Risk of wandering spleen associated with the possibility of tilting the vascular pedicle and circulatory disorder of the spleen necrosis up to full body.   Treatment - See visceroptosia. Splenic infarction Read more [...]
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The spread of tumors in nature

Tumors are described not only in animals of all classes and types, but also in plants. Tumors plants are fundamentally different from the true human and animal tumors. Due to the lack of plant mesenchyme they respond to stimulation of growth of any of the parenchyma, which can create a picture that resembles O. animals, but differ in their biological nature. Several authors have studied the germ of some insects (butterfly Pygaera nigra and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster) original tissue growths that many consider O. Occasionally O. Drosophila arise spontaneously and are inherited. They Read more [...]
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X-ray diagnosis of metastases of malignant tumors

When X-ray can detect metastases in various organs and systems, or direct determination of metastatic tumors, either through its indirect signs. Most easily detect metastases in the lungs and skeletal system. Lung X-ray fluoroscopy and bone without additional research methods in many cases, can detect metastatic nodes. With the localization of AM in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, etc. often need to resort to additional methods (пневмомедиастинотомография, пневморетроперитонеотомография, isotope diagnostics, etc.). Metastasis in Read more [...]
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The role of heredity in the development of tumors

A person familiar with some rare forms of cancer and precancerous conditions, which undoubtedly inherited. Such, for example, retinoblastoma retina and xeroderma pigmentosum. However, in these cases, not the inherited tumor, but only a predisposition to its appearance under the influence of various factors blastogenous. For example, xeroderma pigmentosum is readily converted into skin cancer under the influence of ultraviolet rays of sunlight under normal conditions of life. Relative to the vast number of different OS rights, despite numerous studies, there is still no well-established facts Read more [...]
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X-ray examination of the pancreas

Abdominal plain film in the frontal and lateral projections can detect rare shade calcified stones in the ducts and calcifications in the tissue Pancreas, which are projected at II-III of the lumbar vertebrae, respectively anatomical position of g., directly in front of and behind the vertebrae of the stomach or duodenum in the loop head with stones Pancreas. Sometimes the shadow of big tumors (most cysts) are visible on plain film abdomen, depending on the predominant location of the cyst (head, body, tail and all of g.) As a homogeneous, clearly defined education on the right, left or center Read more [...]
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Excision biopsy

Sectoral resection is the latest and undoubtedly the decisive stage diagnostic approach for tumors of the breast. Frozen section study, produced after excision of breast tissue section, allows almost 99% of cases to a correct conclusion about the nature of the process. Sectoral resection should be performed with frozen section examination on three conditions: 1) the performance of their under anesthesia (to go directly to a radical surgery for confirmation of the diagnosis of cancer), and 2) the refusal by the same circumstances from attempting outpatient operating, and 3) provide for each of Read more [...]
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X-ray diagnostics

Beskontrastnaya mammography. Currently, X-ray examination of the mammary glands is required, a) in healthy women checkups to detect early and palpable forms of cancer and other pathological changes in the mammary glands, and b) to monitor the status of second cancer after unilateral mastectomy for malignant tumors, and c) to exclude multicentric tumor growth when considering the possibility of the savings, or cosmetic surgery, d) the detection of metastatic changes in the axillary lymph nodes and the absence of palpable tumors in the mammary glands ("occult" form of cancer lesions that Read more [...]
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Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma 12-15% of malignant tumors of various organs, and diseases of the esophagus of 74% (A. Feldman). P. cancer is more common in men (78%), more than 70% of patients older than 50 years with a mean age of 60 years. In 6-14% of cases tumor found in the cervical and verhnegrudnom departments, in 30-35% - at the level of the carina and in 30-60% - in the lower chest department and in the gastric cardia. Disease duration from symptom onset to seeking medical help are different. Early treatment of patients (up to 2 months. The onset of illness), according to Petrovsky, registered Read more [...]
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