Pandemics and epidemics.

Well, start with the fact PANDEMIC and EPIDEMIC have defeated the same character, only spread out different (In both cases the nature of the lesion - MASS DISTRIBUTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES). But about the scale of distribution: Epidemic - From the big city to a few regions. Pandemic - From the whole country to the world.History of the most terrible pandemics and epidemics. 1.Justinian plague - For the first time in the history of recorded global epidemic (pandemic) of the plague in the Eastern Roman Empire during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, which appeared on two centuries Read more [...]
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Doctors: Old vaccine for pertussis is not valid

U.S. scientists have claimed that the acellular pertussis vaccine no longer "works." They report that the number of children seven to ten years, whooping cough, is rapidly increasing. And basically no ill newborns, children and adults, suggesting a weakening poslevaktsionnogo immunity.Scientists conducted the study, which involved 682 children with confirmed or suspected pertussis and 2016 healthy children. Everyone was from four to ten years.In the study, scientists have found much less triple vaccine was introduced the first group, in which the children were sick. Complete a Read more [...]
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Scientists have invented a vaccine in the form of a patch to the DNA material

Adhesives, coated with microscopic needles 250 microns wide and 650 microns long, can introduce a DNA vaccine into the body. Such vaccines can help develop immunity against several diseases.The meaning of such vaccines is to familiarize the body with the genes of pathogens. The cells produce molecules grafted human pathogen, which signals the immune system of the aliens. DNA vaccines are more beneficial than usual. For example, do not need to spend time on the production and purification of proteins from pathogens. In theory, all make the body itself. Scientists have tried many times to increase Read more [...]
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Invented tattoo vaccination

A new method of vaccination, similar to a temporary tattoo, allows you to enter the DNA vaccinated absolutely painless and with long enough to immune cells learned about pathogen.Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) to develop a vaccine that does not need to stick a syringe and stored under certain conditions, and in addition, it does not cause a person any discomfort.This vaccine, in contrast to most of today, uses no viral proteins or bacteria that you want to teach the immune system, and DNA. DNA vaccines in recent years have increasingly attracted the attention Read more [...]
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American scientists called flu vaccine waste of money

Researchers from the University of Minnesota published a report stating that the benefits of influenza vaccines overhyped, especially in the elderly, According to Daily Mail. In the course of his work, scientists analyzed more than 12,000 studies on the effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccines since 1930. They note in the final report that "although government officials say that the vaccine protects against 70 to 90 percent of the population, in reality it is not so." According to the researchers vaccine protects against only 59 per cent of the population aged 18 to 65 years, Read more [...]
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Judgement Day / Doomsday (2008)

Genre: Horror, fantasy, action, thriller, dramaCountry: United KingdomSlogan: «The end is nigh.»Release date: March 14, 2008DirectorNeil MarshallScriptNeil MarshallProducer: Benedict Carver, Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, ...OperatorSam McCurdyBudget: $ 30 million Description:In 2008, an epidemic breaks out in Scotland deadly virus called the "Ripper". As the number of victims has grown exponentially, but still no vaccine, the decision to fence off all of Scotland (which is almost half of the UK!) From the rest of the world 9-meter-high concrete wall, with machine-gun turrets and cameras. Read more [...]
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Judgement Day / Doomsday (2008)

Genre: Horror, fantasy, action, thriller, dramaCountry: United KingdomSlogan: «The end is nigh.»Release date: March 14, 2008DirectorNeil MarshallScriptNeil MarshallProducer: Benedict Carver, Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, ...OperatorSam McCurdyBudget: $ 30 million Description:In 2008, an epidemic breaks out in Scotland deadly virus called the "Ripper". As the number of victims has grown exponentially, but still no vaccine, the decision to fence off all of Scotland (which is almost half of the UK!) From the rest of the world 9-meter-high concrete wall, with machine-gun turrets and cameras. Read more [...]
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Judgement Day / Doomsday (2008)

Genre: Horror, fantasy, action, thriller, dramaCountry: United KingdomSlogan: «The end is nigh.»Release date: March 14, 2008DirectorNeil MarshallScriptNeil MarshallProducer: Benedict Carver, Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, ...OperatorSam McCurdyBudget: $ 30 million Description:In 2008, an epidemic breaks out in Scotland deadly virus called the "Ripper". As the number of victims has grown exponentially, but still no vaccine, the decision to fence off all of Scotland (which is almost half of the UK!) From the rest of the world 9-meter-high concrete wall, with machine-gun turrets and cameras. Read more [...]
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Judgement Day / Doomsday (2008)

Genre: Horror, fantasy, action, thriller, dramaCountry: United KingdomSlogan: «The end is nigh.»Release date: March 14, 2008DirectorNeil MarshallScriptNeil MarshallProducer: Benedict Carver, Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, ...OperatorSam McCurdyBudget: $ 30 million Description:In 2008, an epidemic breaks out in Scotland deadly virus called the "Ripper". As the number of victims has grown exponentially, but still no vaccine, the decision to fence off all of Scotland (which is almost half of the UK!) From the rest of the world 9-meter-high concrete wall, with machine-gun turrets and cameras. Read more [...]
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Judgement Day / Doomsday (2008)

Genre: Horror, fantasy, action, thriller, dramaCountry: United KingdomSlogan: «The end is nigh.»Release date: March 14, 2008DirectorNeil MarshallScriptNeil MarshallProducer: Benedict Carver, Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, ...OperatorSam McCurdyBudget: $ 30 million Description:In 2008, an epidemic breaks out in Scotland deadly virus called the "Ripper". As the number of victims has grown exponentially, but still no vaccine, the decision to fence off all of Scotland (which is almost half of the UK!) From the rest of the world 9-meter-high concrete wall, with machine-gun turrets and cameras. Read more [...]
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Judgement Day / Doomsday (2008)

Genre: Horror, fantasy, action, thriller, dramaCountry: United KingdomSlogan: «The end is nigh.»Release date: March 14, 2008DirectorNeil MarshallScriptNeil MarshallProducer: Benedict Carver, Marc D. Evans, Trevor Macy, ...OperatorSam McCurdyBudget: $ 30 million Description:In 2008, an epidemic breaks out in Scotland deadly virus called the "Ripper". As the number of victims has grown exponentially, but still no vaccine, the decision to fence off all of Scotland (which is almost half of the UK!) From the rest of the world 9-meter-high concrete wall, with machine-gun turrets and cameras. Read more [...]
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Epidemiology of medical microbiology parasitology and virology

Theoretical basis of epidemiology developed in the USSR DK Zabolotny, LV Gromashevskiy, B. A. Bashenin and many others abroad - K. Raska (Czechoslovakia), M. Kacprzak (Poland), P. Verbier (Bulgaria), C. S. Sokha (India), etc. LV Gromashevskiy formulated teaching of the laws of the epidemic process: the source and the source of infection, the ways and mechanisms of transmission, about the relationship of biological and social factors in the origin and development of epidemics. He created a classification of infectious diseases recognized by most epidemiologists. EN Pavlovsky (1884-1965) based Read more [...]
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Epidemiology and prevention of polio-3

To polio become an epidemic disease, long-term evolution of poliovirus, including multiple mating strains and their gain in malls across particularly susceptible persons. The importance of passages in susceptible individuals identified in the study of variability vaccine strain of type III (Leon 12 a1b Seybinom). This strain by passage through the intestines of children without antibodies repeatedly gave offspring with increased neurovirulence and changed the marker signs: rct/40 and d. At the same time, the passage through the digestive tract of children with naturally acquired antibodies, Read more [...]
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Epidemiology and prevention of polio-2

Much more dignity has live polio vaccine from the harmless to humans attenuated strains of poliovirus I, II, III types, which is administered orally in the form of drops or candy (pills) and can immunize not only the graft, but also susceptible individuals in contact in the family. Numerous laboratory and epidemiological trials of vaccine strains or Seybinom Koprowski conducted by these authors, as well as MP Chumakov et al., AA Smorodintsev et al. and many other researchers in a number of countries have established almost complete harmlessness and areaktogennost oral vaccination live poliovirus Read more [...]
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Development of microbiology immunology hygiene epidemiology

In the formation of hygiene science crucial role played by the emergence of new types of institutions - laboratories (in the mid-19th century.) For the appearance of the laboratory was required a certain level of development of science, especially physiology, chemistry and microbiology. Took shape in the 2nd half of the 19th century microbiology with immunology and epidemiology given the opportunity to explore and develop ways to prevent mass infectious diseases, resulting in a history of high morbidity and mortality. Historical role in the development of microbiology research belongs French Read more [...]
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Prevention of rabies

Preventive maintenance is carried out in two areas: the fight against the vehicle of infection and prevention of disease in man attacked by a rabid animal. Address sources of infection is the most radical meaning and includes the following measures: the right mode of keeping dogs, destruction of stray, stray dogs and wild carnivores, and preventive vaccination of domestic dogs, the organization of laboratory diagnosis of rabies in animals, sanitary and veterinary propaganda. Rabies vaccination is carried out at the alleged or apparent infection of humans (the incubation period). Distinguish vaccinated Read more [...]
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Living laboratory-1

Protective substances serum are of different nature and therefore carry different names: antitoxins, antibodies, agglutinins, opsonins. In human blood, who suffered disease, that is produced by known immunity to the disease, such substances are usually larger than nebolevshego. So a serum, or humoral theory of immunity. In medicine, it is now recognized the value of the properties of serum and the role of phagocytes for immunity. It is proved that in the processes of immunity, the body in fighting off infection involved and protective substances serum and phagocytic ability of leukocytes. But Read more [...]
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Vaccinotherapy

Theoretical basis of vaccine therapy developed in 1908, is well known for the favorable results obtained with vaccine therapy in patients with certain infectious diseases with a tendency to chronicity (brucellosis, dysentery, etc.). Vaccinotherapy with staphylococcal disease has not yet found widespread use, although in 1938 pointed to its high efficiency. The mechanism of vaccine therapy is based not so much on treatment already infected cells and on the production of antibodies, but on removing specific sensitivity still healthy elements, which serves to limit the disease process. Vaccinotherapy Read more [...]
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Victory over polio-6

During 1959, our country is gradually increasing scale were immunized with live vaccine against poliomyelitis, manufactured in Moscow, more than 15 million people. This made it possible to reduce the number of republics of polio cases by 10-20 times (for example, in the Estonian and Lithuanian SSR) and to eliminate the manifestations of epidemic poliomyelitis. Live vaccine is safe and does not cause adverse reactions. On this basis, the Ministry of Health in 1960 approved a program of immunization with live vaccine of the population between the ages of 2 months to 20 years (over 75 million). Read more [...]
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Victory over polio-5

However, by Salk killed vaccine for all its merits, though not a perfect or quite satisfactory as mass polio. It leaves vulnerable to paralysis of too many unvaccinated children - up to 20-30 percent, which indicates its partial effectiveness. In addition, the vaccinated injections of Salk vaccine remains susceptible to asymptomatic infection with polio virus, the virus multiplies freely in the intestinal wall and re-transmitted to other people. Consequently, the Salk vaccine to not exclude the threat of new outbreaks, as the virus - the infectious agent is constantly circulating in the population, Read more [...]
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