Bees and similar insects often zhalyatsya in July or August. Bee stings dangerous because not only can bee leave its stinger in the wound, but also necessarily wasted in the bite venom. There are both domestic bees, which are specifically bred for apiaries and wild forest bees. The latter are more dangerous because their venom is more toxic than poison home, and they are said to be many times the "meaner" domestic bees.
Bee venom is able to provide the most diverse effects on the human body. One bite can cause short-term pain, redness and swelling, which subsides after a few hours. Read more [...]
Thus, the snake poison is a mixture of complex interdependent biologically active substances. In venoms contain from 5 to 15 different enzymes, from 3 to 12 kinds of proteins and peptides, various proteases, phospholipase A and B, hyaluronidase, cholinesterase, ribonuclease, adenosinetriphosphatase, pyrophosphatase, there are also toxins and biologically active agents, coagulants, anticoagulants, gemorraginy, hemolysins, cytotoxins and other poisons toxicity varies and depends on the amount involved, for example, sea snakes produce 9.4 mg of venom, that is 25 times less than the cobra, but he Read more [...]
Dry poison Cobra retains toxicity when irradiated with gamma rays 60Co at 60 mrad, and the action on solutions of 4 mrad venom (2 mg / ml) gives its antigenic and toxic properties (Lauhatirananda is a., 1970).
As can be seen, the effect of temperature and irradiation on the individual fractions snake venoms from different families are different. Ammonia and carbolic acid diluted 1: 20 and sublimate 1: 1000 or impair the activity of the poison, caustic alkali in a dilution of 1: 10 activity weakens and destroys poison for 10 minutes.
The composition of snake venom are water and dissolved proteins Read more [...]
Many aspidovyh neurotoxins consist of 61-62 amino acid residues in the same chain, joined four disulfide bonds (Lee, Peng, 1961). Toxic venom fraction N. naja contains 61 amino acid residues and 8 cystine. Unlike kobrotoksina it has an alanine residue 2, 3 - phenylalanine, proline, and a lot more no methionine, has terminal amino acids-isoleucine and the C-terminal alanine (Nakai is a., 1970). Yang et al. (1969) from the main component of the neurotoxic venom N. naja identified 62 amino acid residues: 8 - aspartic acid, 7 - glutamic acid, 8 - threonine, 4 - serine, 2 - proline, 7 - glycine, Read more [...]
Native venom - rather thin transparent liquid straw-yellow or greenish in color, odorless and taste sour reaction (from cobra venom - neutral), the relative density of the 1,030-1,082, it is heavier than water (sinks), when mixed with water, it forms a transparent solution, sometimes this solution is slightly unclear due to desquamated epithelium ductless; soluble in salt and buffer solutions. Dries slowly, forming crystals, dry matter is 15-26,3% of the allocated amount. After drying, 60 mg of venom viper is 15-17 mg (MI Elisuysky, 1941), the dry residue of poison V. ammodytes is 4.34!% of Read more [...]
Yadonosny apparatus tarantula constitute major segments chelicerae, claws yadoprodutsiruyuschie glands and their ducts. The main segments chelicerae powerful and movably articulated with cephalothorax (stitched together a strong, elastic ligament. Musculation provides drawing apart and bending in the transverse direction and the movement of major joints chelicerae back and forth. Claws are sharp, easily displaced in different directions. Cylindrical, somewhat curved yadoprodutsiruyuschie glands are located in the cephalothorax and some go into the cavity chelicerae. Ducts of glands, piercing Read more [...]
Scorpions jointed flexible "tail", or metasoma (zadnebryushie) ends swollen tail segment, in which it has its yadonosny device consisting of two yadoprodutsiruyuschih glands associated with the outlet ducts hooklike sharp sting. Under pressure from the muscle layer surrounding the gland, immediately poured poison into prey.
Scorpion venom refers to toksoalbuminam. It is rather thin, clear liquid acid reaction. Poison Lei. quinquestriatus in the first portion is transparent, then opalescent, the last portion - milky viscous liquid, the amount of servings - respectively 0.45, 0.32 and Read more [...]
Hahn (1939) isolated from bee venom 2 protein component - fast dialysis through the film and causing convulsions in animals and slow dialysis, paralyzing the respiratory center. Isolated from these three fractions were protamine are 2 factions close to each other, different different speeds to the cathode, and one of these factions had toxic effects, pH 11.0, the first, second, 10.0. In one of the distinguished fractions found 13 amino acids: glycine, alanine, Wolin, leucine, lizoleytsin, serine, threonine, lysine, arginine, aspartic and glutamic acid, tryptophan, proline (Fischer, Dorfel, 1953). Read more [...]
Yadonosny apparatus bees and wasps presented chitin formation, consisting of a rod tip (bulbs stylet and stabbing plates) as well as the basal unit, which consists of several plates on each side. Sting and the basal unit together with two pairs of arcs. Stinging apparatus bees and wasps placed at the end of the abdomen. Sting are more complicated: falcate triangular plate on top form stinging bristle tip terminated serrated edge. The front of the oblong plate forms an arc slide sting slide form ahead thickening bulbs, and behind - the stiletto. To the rear edges of the oblong plates attached Read more [...]
Yadonosny karakurt apparatus are the main segments of chelicerae claws yadoprodutsiruyuschie gland behind the cephalothorax, and the fine flow going through the channel inside the claw and end a small hole, a few short of the summit, which contributes to the free outpouring of venom into their prey. Fixing vonzennyh a prey claws are using cloves, reduction of muscle moves the chelicerae, and the reduction of muscle flat spiral shell gland produces pressure on her body, under the influence of which it stands poison. Amount of poison in the glands karakurt - about 0.5 mg.
Native poison - light, Read more [...]
Yadonosny apparatus consists of a serpent yadoprodutsiruyuschih glands, ducts and yadoprovodyaschih teeth. The most complex and complete yadonosny apparatus in viper (Viperidae) and yamkogolovyh (Crotalidae) snake. His teeth are mounted on a short maxillary bone can rotate, closing the mouth lie along the edge of the jaw back in disclosing lifted and take sheer, "fighting" position. For toxic uzheobraznyh snake (Colubridae) characteristic grooved teeth on the upper jaw backward, for aspidovyh (Elapidae) and marine (HydrophIIdae) snakes - short tubular fixed teeth in the front of the Read more [...]
Given the role of histamine in the mechanism of circulatory disorders, we also recommend the early use of antihistamines (pipolfen, dimedrola etc.). In the first 2-3 days, we also used acetylsalicylic acid as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, stimulating the function of the adrenal cortex, which reduces the activity of hyaluronidase and normalizing vascular permeability means. In addition, due to the sedative drugs protivogistaminnye action facilitates the patient's condition (Hentsch, 1963), and salicylates, according Treithevie (1970), suppressing the antigen-antibody reaction, reduce the intake Read more [...]
Ignoring the well known fact that chlorine compounds of heavy metals have on the body not less negative impact than snake venom, Ferraton (1898), MG Shraybor Malyugina and TA (1936), and others were used as antagonists of snake venom one % solution of gold chloride, 2% chlorine solution, methylene blue, and other means, also had a negative impact (G. Segal, 3. M. Usdin, 1939).
Thus, a variety of chemicals and non-specific tools not only do not cause a positive effect, but also complicate the disease.
Imposition of constrictions, causing cuts and cuts on the bite, suctioning blood tests performed Read more [...]
In the first minutes after the sting develop local swelling and redness in size from 7-10 to 25-40 cm Subjectively: paresthesia, nausea and sometimes vomiting, shortness of breath, palpitations, retrosternal dull pain without irradiation, headache, dizziness, weakness and drowsiness, chills, low-grade fever. After 15-25 minutes after the sting developed colicky pain first language, then the gums. Soon there are cramping fingers, clonic and tonic muscle twitching shoulder girdle, the person sometimes calf muscle. Further notes cold extremities and face, then feeling cold all over. Face and forehead Read more [...]
In 1/3 of patients with increase of venous pressure (average 147 mm) returned to normal after 3-4 hours of treatment. Shortness of breath (EN Pavlovsky, A. Giżycko, 1935), decrease (PI Marikovskii, 1956), or difficulty restored to two-third, at least on day 4 (JA Grateful ), in severe cases, pulmonary edema develops. Sometimes there is a hearing loss, and lacrimation (II Moszkowski, AI Okhotin, 1945 JA Thankful) in 3 patients was reduced hearing, in 2 patients with severe poisoning were observed meningeal phenomena, and temporary impotence (YA) Time. There is a belief that after the bite karakurt Read more [...]
Bites of poisonous spiders cause acute poisoning, characterized by multifaceted manifestations. The degree of toxicity depends on the amount of venom injected, time of year etc.
Marikovskii P. (1956), criticizing the research methods Cobert, AS Shcherbina, KN Rossikova, SV Konstansova, found that spiders have two or over the toxicity of venom is extremely low due to the small size glands and the small amount of secretions; predpolovozrelom in age and in the first years of life of mature females toxicity its venom is high, before the death of the female is slightly reduced. In the 5th age of venom Read more [...]
Characteristic of practically important, despite the cessation of breathing and blood pressure drop to zero, heart continues for 5-25 minutes. By intravenous administration of 2 mg / kg of venom Mic. fulvius along with a sharp decrease in blood pressure, paralysis of respiratory muscles and respiratory depression hampered convulsive response to motor nerve stimulation, and later developed heart failure. Cats perish in 21/2-9 hours of heart failure despite mechanical ventilation (Weis, Mcisaac, 1971). Viper venom at a dilution of 1: 10 000 exciting, and in a dilution of 1:100 and 1:200 inhibits Read more [...]
In 1/3 of the patients in the early days there is low-grade fever, and in patients with infected wounds sliced it kept up to 5 days.
In severe and moderate poisoning nausea and sometimes vomiting, disappearing after rational therapy, sometimes for 2-6 hours are unpleasant sensation and blunt muscle pain that occurs sometimes in the epigastrium.
Neurotropic action of cobra venom on the various centers of the cerebral cortex and selectively on the respiratory and vomiting centers usually manifests difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, nausea, sometimes vomiting, dizziness, confusion, and transient Read more [...]
Snake venom poisoning severity and prevalence of one or the other manifestations depend on the type of snake, the dose, route of administration of the poison and the time of year.
Median lethal dose of poison some marine and terrestrial snake - Lapemis hardwicki, Enh. Shistosa, Hyd. cyanocinetus, Hyd. melanosoma, N. naja, Karilia Jerdoni, Agk. rhodostoma (Carey, Wright, 1962) by intraperitoneal administration to mice was respectively 26.4, 107-127, 239-243, 400, 480, 533 and 880 mg / kg. With the introduction of the poison into the lateral ventricle of the brain of animals change their behavior, Read more [...]
Physalia (Physalia aretusa) - this is a colony of polyps, performing various "duties." Afloat support its oval bladder - pneumatophores to 20-30 cm long and 8-10 cm wide, filled with a gas mixture consisting of 12-15% oxygen, 1.18% argon and nitrogen.
Interestingly, the shape of the bubble at Physalia living in the northern and southern hemispheres are different, and they will never meet in a "foreign territory". This feature helps siphonophores resist the force of Earth's rotation, the Coriolis force, and provides a "northern" siphonophores move left, and Read more [...]