Spondylosis (synonym deforming spondylosis) - A chronic disease of the spine due to degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc and ligament calcification at the site of attachment to the edges of the vertebral bodies. Calcified cartilage in the future into a bony growths. Spondylosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine (intervertebral discs, ligaments, and surfaces of the vertebral bodies) and is detected mainly in elderly and senile patients. Contribute to the development of spondylosis constitutional predisposition and, apparently, hard physical work. In addition, spondylosis Read more [...]
Spinal injury hard blunt objects occur less frequently and are usually detected by traffic accidents and falls from heights.
Vertebral fractures in different parts of uneven both in frequency of occurrence, and on the severity and outcome.
Vertebrae - often their processes (spinous and transverse) - can be damaged by direct exposure blunt objects, whereas fractures of the vertebral bodies (especially in the transition from one to the other physiological curvature) are the result of indirect trauma.
External action and behind the rear side of the spine at verhnegrudnogo department is not only fracture Read more [...]
Fig. 13. a, b, c. Types of fractures of the spine
Fractures of the vertebral bodies in athletes is 7.7%. The nature and location of the injury are different (Fig. 13). Most patients have a compression
uncomplicated fractures of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and XII I lumbar vertebra. They occur most often after hitting his head on the water at the ski jumper, with a head injury on the roof of a car or a sudden stop it (in this case possible and extensor injuries of the cervical spine), as well as the violent collision of players. Compression fractures of the cervical common in freestyle Read more [...]
His main task in fractures of the vertebral bodies - unloading the spine, preventing further deformation of the damaged vertebrae and spinal cord from compression; correction injured vertebral body shape, preserving functional capacity backbone (AF Kaptelin, 1969). In addition to these tasks before sports traumatology are still more: the preservation and maintenance of a high level of overall performance athlete in all phases of treatment, full recovery of sporting qualities in the final stage - the stage of sports training, solution expert questions the possibility of sports in general (depending Read more [...]
Osteochondrosis of the clinical form of the disease is more common in athletes of the sports where there is a constant overload of the spine caused by macro-and micro-traumas, especially among weightlifters, wrestlers, rowers, athletes, gymnasts, acrobats, footballers, cyclists. According Levgana (1973), 60% of it falls on the lumbar, thoracic 30% and 10% for cervical departments. At the heart of osteoarthritis is degenerative-dystrophic lesions of the intervertebral discs. These changes occur at high physical activity, weight lifting, chronic traumatic disc metabolism disturbances.
The clinical Read more [...]
X-rays of the spine is shown in all cases of suspected its primary or secondary changes. All are used in X-ray projection of the spine can be divided into primary and secondary. The main projections for all departments are AP and lateral, options for the cervical spine (fig. 27) - projection rotated by 15-20 ° (in this case clearly the articular processes of the cervical vertebrae and the bow) and radiographs of Atlanto-occipital area in the direct projection through an open mouth. For the thoracic to clarify the status of the joints is very suitable polubokovaya projection when you turn on Read more [...]
Fractures of the spine among the most serious injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Varies depending on the severity of three groups of fractures: vertebral fractures, uncomplicated spinal cord and intervertebral discs; fractures, complicated by damage to the spinal cord or its roots, fractures, penetrating into the intervertebral disc. Fractures of the vertebral bodies are seen mostly in the lower chest - verhnepoyasnichnom spine. By the nature of damage they can be compression, oblique, comminuted. There are also marginal fractures of the vertebral bodies. When compression fractures that Read more [...]
Laktozuriya - appearance in the urine of lactose (milk sugar). Physiological laktozuriya observed at the end of pregnancy and after delivery. Pathological laktozuriya occurs in infants with digestive disorders. Under normal samples for sugar lactose is indistinguishable from glucose. Therefore, for a positive reaction to the sugar in the urine to detect laktozurii do special tests to lactose and lactose-use property, in contrast to glucose, not fermented by yeast.
Laminectomy - operation remove handles one or several vertebrae. Made for access to the spinal cord in its disease (tumor, herniated Read more [...]
Anomalies of the spine often are the cause of some of the strains.
This should be considered in the diagnosis of spinal fracture.Fig. 12. Lateral wedge polupozvonok.Fig. 13. Alternating wedge hemivertebrae.Lateral wedge vertebrae or hemivertebrae (Fig. 12), are relatively often mean anomalies. They are more likely to be single or double. In the latter case, the wedge-shaped hemivertebrae the opposite side, and they are called alternating (Fig. 13). Occasionally there are double sided hemivertebrae. Lateral wedge hemivertebrae are a cause of congenital scoliosis. Particularly favorable Read more [...]
Nearby lay the vertebrae are joined to each other bodies, arches, spinous, transverse and articular processes (Fig. 102).
102. Backbone connection (by R. Sinel'nikov). 1 - discus intervertebralis; 2 - nucleus pulposus; 3 - lig. longitudinale posterius; 4 - lig. longitudinale anterius; 5 - for. intervertebrale; 6 - lig. flavum; 7 - lig. interspinale; 8 - lig. supraspinale.The connection of the vertebral bodies. With the exception of I and II cervical vertebrae, sacrum and coccyx, between the vertebral bodies have thick layers of fibrous cartilage thickness of 2 mm (thoracic) to 10 Read more [...]
Spine radiography is performed in two orthogonal projections. The picture shows the back projection neural processes are strictly in the midline spine, and on either side of it are visible oval shade roots arcs. At side clearly visible projection and flat line the back of the vertebral bodies.
On each picture to determine the region of the study, and define the projection axis vertebra. Regarding each vertebra on radiographs determine the shape of the body, contours, structure, spongy substance, condition of the ossification, arcs, and processes. Need to study the width and structure of the Read more [...]
1. The median sacral Vienna (V. sacralis media) originates from the of the venous the sacral plexus and empties into the initial part lower vena cava.
2. Lumbar veins (vv. lumbales) begin in the muscles the side wall abdomen. They fall back muscle and dorsal branches. Near the diaphragm they form a v. lumbalis ascendens, the continuing into the chest cavity in the form v. azygos and v. hemiazygos, while down below anastomose with v. iliolumbalis, which flows into the common iliac a vein. Lumbar veins are connected to the vertebral venous plexus.
3. Vein and the plexus the vertebral the Read more [...]
Spine (columna vertebralis) is formed of 31-32 vertebrae (vertebrae). Distinguish 7 cervical (vertebrae cervicales), 12 thoracic (vertebrae thoracicae), 5 lumbar (vertebrae lumbales), 5 sacral (vertebrae sacrales) vertebrae intergrows one bone - the sacrum (os sacrum), and 2 - 3 coccygeal (vertebrae coccygeae) vertebra.
Vertebrae 35. Chest vertebra (VIII).
1 - processus articularis superior; 2 - fovea costalis superior; 3 - corpus vertebrae; 4 - fovea costalis inferior; 5 - incisura vertebralis interior; 6 - processus articularis inferior; 7 - processus spinosus; 8 - processus transversus; 9 Read more [...]
The fetus in each vertebra cartilage but coccygeal, at 7 - 8 weeks of development, the three bone kernels, one - in the body, two - in the arc. Newborn body vertebrae has an oval shape without marked the transition from one surface to another. Crossbar cancellous expressed clearly. In the vertebral arches are found holes in the form of a slot. This anomaly of ossification called split (spina bifida) is taken into consideration only after three years. Doug V lumbar vertebrae and sacral vertebrae completely fused into a single bone after 8 years. In 25% of cases in this place appears split, Read more [...]