The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

Developing new designs of silencers for the sound of small arms fire, developers actively patent them. Each design has its own patent number. Leading in the development and patenting of designs of modern silencers for the sound of shots are the United States and Russia. A number of designs are patented by the European Patent Office. 

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The silencer according to US patent No. 4291610 from 09/29/1981 is a hollow body with partitions that divide the inside of this silencer into a series of chambers. The second silencer chamber from the muzzle end has a structure that breaks down the powder gases into many flows, and then ensures their mixing, collision with each other.

In the third chamber of such silencers of the sound of the shot, counting from the cut of the barrel of the weapon, several conical partitions are installed in such a way that they divide this chamber into smaller sub-chambers. Each of these conical partitions with its base is directed to the outlet end of the muffler. Patent protects seven design options for such shot silencers.

Structural schemes of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4291610 from 09/29/1981.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

When fired from a firearm on which a silencer is mounted, the first (expansion) chamber is filled with powder gases. Next, the powder gases enter the second chamber through the hole for the passage of the bullet and through many holes between the first and second chambers. Thus, the powder gases are separated into the main stream, which moves through the hole for the passage of the bullet, and many auxiliary flows, the axes of which intersect the axis of the main stream.

Auxiliary streams collide with the main stream and scatter it. As a result, the flow rate of powder gases decreases and their internal energy decreases. Then the powder gases burst into the third chamber. Moreover, the powder gases in the second chamber are again divided into many flows — passing through the opening for the passage of a bullet and many auxiliary flows. Powder gases again lose some of their velocity head and internal energy, additionally dissipating on five conical partitions.

The design of such silencers of the sound of the shot also includes a trough-like partition, which is located across the second chamber and has openings. It divides the second chamber into subchambers and directs auxiliary streams of powder gases into their main stream.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4341283 from 07/27/1982.

The silencer according to US patent No. 4341283 dated 07/27/1982 contains a hollow cylindrical chamber closed at its ends by structural elements such as nuts mounted in a thread housing. An opening is made in the front wall of the muffler through which a longitudinal cylindrical structural element passes. Inside the case there is a deflector.

The longitudinal cylindrical structural element has a number of gas channels, which are connected at one end to the openings in the barrel wall and at the other with a muffler expansion chamber. When fired, part of the gases from the barrel channel enters the gas channels of the cylindrical element, and part moves along the axis of the barrel channel and enters the deflector forming an expansion chamber.

Structural diagram of a silencer for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4341283 from 07/27/1982.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The deflector is profiled in such a way as to ensure maximum braking of the flow of powder gases. A thread is made on the inner surface of the housing, along which a deflector can move along the housing axis, providing tuning (changing the volume of the front expansion chamber) to obtain the most effective sound attenuation characteristics.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4384507 from 05.24.1983.

The silencer according to US patent No. 4384507 from 05.24.1983 contains a cylindrical body with internal sound-absorbing elements. An end cap with a channel is installed on the casing, containing elements for attaching the casing to the gun barrel. A cylindrical ferrule is put on the body, which can move progressively along the body, occupying two positions.

In the first position, the cage is retracted onto the casing, and in the second, it protrudes forward from the casing, and only adjacent end parts of the casing and cage overlap. Thus, when the clip is extended to the front position, the internal volume of the housing increases and the noise attenuation efficiency increases. The holder on the housing is fixed with a mounting device.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4530417 from 07.23.1985.

The muffler according to US patent No. 4530417 of 07.23.1985 is a cylindrical body having threads at the front and rear ends, into which are screwed cylindrical plugs having axial holes for the passage of the bullet. At least three absorbent elements are placed in the silencer housing, separated by rigid reflective partitions of a triangular shape.

Structural diagram of a silencer for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4530417 of 07.23.1985.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

It is preferable to use material made of twisted (woven) metal or non-metallic components as absorbent elements, which will provide expansion and absorption of powder gases, as well as heat absorption. The use of such a material provides the creation of many tortuous labyrinths inside a tightly packed volume of wire, which, in turn, increases the volume for expansion of powder gases, as well as the total area of ​​the outer surface of the wire that can receive heat from powder gases.

The design, features and principle of operation of the silencers of the sound of the shot according to US patent No. 4576083.

The muffler according to US patent No. 4576083 has a cylindrical body with dissecting elements of cylindrical and conical shapes installed therein, perforated holes. Mounted on the weapon with a thread, the alternation of cylindrical and conical elements creates three expansion chambers. Heat absorbing elements are also installed in the housing..

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The design, features and principle of operation of the silencers of the sound of the shot according to US patent No. 4588043.

The silencers created on the basis of US patent No. 4588043, inventor Charles A. Finn, proved to be highly effective. All silencers have diaphragms with additional slots in the walls. The slot (of the same size as the channel for the passage of the bullet) forms a diagonal channel extending from the rear surface to the opposite wall of the diaphragm.

Such a diaphragm creates a gas stream directed against the main stream of powder gases moving behind the bullet. A gas stream absorbs much more energy inside the muffler than the same number of conventional diaphragms arranged in the same way. Finn patent protected three different diaphragm designs with diagonal slots.

Its first design was used in a silencer for 5.56 and 9 mm MK-1 weapons. The silencers also have an improvement developed by Mc Williams. Perforated cylinders that increase surface area and turbulence of the process and create additional expansion chambers between the diaphragms. A slot made on one side of each type 1 diaphragm allows expanding gases to seep from the rear of the diaphragm into the area in front of the diaphragm without passing through the central hole.

Structural diagrams of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4588043.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.
silencers for 5.56 and 9 mm weapons have different geometries, so the speed of powder gases differs significantly for a 5.56 cartridge&# 215; 45 mm vs 9&# 215; 19 mm. The diaphragms direct the powder gases into the perforated cylinder, thereby creating an expansion chamber between the diaphragms.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4939977 from 07/10/1990.

The design of the silencer according to US patent No. 4939977 from 07/10/1990 can be attributed to the devices of a silencer of a shot type noise of a mechanical type. The silencer consists of a hollow body mounted on the barrel of the weapon, and extendable exhaust elements located inside the body. Outlet elements have a conical shape and at the base are connected by an element that ensures their rotation around the axis.

In their normal position, the outlet elements form a cone-shaped structure held in this position by a radially bursting spring encircling the segments. During a shot from a weapon, an outgoing bullet, together with powder gases, acts on the disclosed exhaust segments, forcing them to move apart in the opposite direction to the direction of action of the holding force of the radially stretched spring.

Structural diagram of a silencer for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4939977 from 07/10/1990.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The opening elements create the opportunity for the bullet to pass through the silencer and serve to reduce the noise of the shot. This effect is achieved by creating a reverse flow of powder gases, returning back to the barrel of the weapon after the bullet flew out of the silencer.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4974489 from 04/12/1990.

The silencer according to US patent No. 4974489 from 04/12/1990 contains an external tubular casing made of heat-absorbing material. Inside the outer tubular housing is an internal square-section structure made of heat-absorbing and heat-conducting material. The outer casing is closed at the ends by plugs installed in it on the thread.

Structural diagram of a silencer for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 4974489 from 04/12/1990.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

One of the plugs has a device for attaching a silencer to the barrel. A number of partitions are installed along the inner case. The transverse walls are installed in the inner case, which form successively located expansion chambers. In the space between the inner and outer casings, additional expansion sections are formed.

The inner case is bounded by four walls of the same length, in which openings are made, located in pairs on opposite walls. Holes are placed between the walls and partitions. The planes of adjacent holes are offset 90 degrees. Expansion chambers through openings in the walls of the inner casing communicate with additional expansion sections.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 5029512 from 07/09/1991.

The silencer according to US patent No. 5029512 dated July 9, 1991 has an elongated tubular body with an axial cylindrical channel. The muffler is attached to the barrel of the weapon with the help of a thread formed in its end element. Inside the housing there are conical silencing elements that are spaced from each other along the axis of the housing. An axial channel is made in each element, which expands from the first end of the element to its second end. On the outer surface of each element, spiral partitions are made from the beginning to the end of the outer surface of the element. In the spiral partitions, holes are made along their entire length.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The design, features and principle of operation of the silencers of the sound of the shot according to US patent No. 5078043.

The silencer for automatic weapons according to US patent No. 5078043 contains a main body in which expansion chambers are formed using transverse partitions. Partitions are installed in the inner case, which is located concentrically inside the main body. There is a gap between the buildings. On the inner surfaces of the outer and inner cases, elements of sound-absorbing material are installed.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers shot sound according to US patent No. 5476028.

The silencer according to US patent No. 5476028 is a muzzle attachment mounted on the barrel of a weapon using thread. During the shot, two expansion chambers with lateral through windows are formed in the nozzle. The main gas-dynamic processes of noise suppression are realized in the first chamber, the reflective wall of which is profiled from the conditions of maximum loss of velocity and pressure of gas flows.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The design, features and principle of operation of the device for suppressing noise and reducing recoil when firing according to US patent No. 6079311 from 11/21/1997.

A device for suppressing noise and reducing recoil when firing a muzzle firearm according to US patent No. 6079311 of 11/21/1997 contains a cylindrical body, which is divided by partitions into a number of expansion chambers. The chambers provide a slowdown of the gas flow by its multiple expansion and mixing. The partitions forming the expansion chambers are profiled.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

The design, features and principle of operation of silencers for the sound of a shot according to US patent No. 6308609 from 12/08/1998.

The silencer according to US patent No. 6308609 of 12/08/1998 contains an external sleeve-body, front and rear covers and a set of shaped partitions that are fixed between the covers of the inner sleeve. In the front cover there is a device for attaching a silencer to the barrel of a weapon. The covers are removable and can be separated from the sleeve.

The design, features and principle of operation of modern silencers for the sound of small arms shots manufactured in the USA.

Each partition has a profiled, close to a conical surface. The holes in the partitions intended for the passage of the bullet have conical-cylindrical diffusers for the effective damping of the velocity of the powder gases.

Based on the book Devices for reducing the sound level of a shot for automatic weapons.
Konovalov N.A., Pilipenko O.V., Skorik A.D., Kvasha Yu.A., Kovalenko V.I..

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