After the Second World War, interest in silencers for the sound of firearms fell, their development almost stopped. A further peak in the development of silencer designs came in 60 years. The Cold War caused the development of secret services and special operations forces, local conflicts and undeclared wars with the transition from large-scale hostilities to semi-partisan ones in which the role of small units and snipers increased.
The development of silencers for the sound of a shot, the muffler of the SVT-40 rifle, the Mauser-98K carbine and the Ingram submachine gun.
Those problems that Humbert, Maxim, Ertel and other designers were the first developers of silencers to solve were now successfully solved by modern designers. At the same time, they are guided by the considerations that the shot could be made almost silent (with a sound level not higher than 6 dB), reducing the pressure of the powder gases before they were released into the atmosphere to 1.9 kg / cm2, and the temperature to 15-30 degrees.
The designs of modern silencers are distinguished by the variety of physical phenomena used and, accordingly, the principles of action and the structural elements used in their device. Silencers of the sound of a shot on a firearm conventionally include the following groups.
Silent and flameless firing devices.
Special weapon with expansion of powder gases in a variable-closed volume.
Custom and exotic designs.
Low noise firing devices.
Analysis of the design features of the silencers of the sound of the shot leads to the following conclusions:
The most effective designs are multi-chamber silencers, which make maximum use of the effects of multiple expansion, turbulization of the gas stream, maximum heat removal and heat absorption.
The most advanced silencers are most effective for single shots..
During multiple or automatic firing, silencers lose their quality due to the wear of multi-chamber partitions and the rapid heating of cooling elements.
The development of effective silencers for the sound of a shot requires the use of fundamentally new approaches using the achievements of modern science and technology.
The creation of silencers for the sound of small arms shots should go through the unification of silencers for different types of small arms and the use of the modular principle of constructing its individual units and elements.
To systematize the idea of the design of silencers, we give descriptions of the device of silencers for the sound of a shot for the SVT-40 rifle, Mauser-98K carbine and the Ingram submachine gun.
Design and device of a silencer for the sound of a shot to the SVT-40 rifle.
The muffler to the SVT-40 rifle was attached to it by turning the tube behind the front of the front sight so that the front part of the muzzle brake of the rifle entered the chamber of the preliminary expansion of the muffler, the rear part served as a seat and part of the vertical slots was blocked by a tube. The internal volume of the silencer was divided into 12 expansion chambers, which were separated by diaphragms with conical openings. The volume of chambers to the exit from the muffler consistently decreased.
Design and device of a silencer for the sound of a shot to the Mauser-98K carbine.
One of the options for a silencer for the Mauser-98K carbine consisted of six conical partitions deflecting the gas flow from the center to the inner surface of the case. A gas cutter similar to the Bramit silencer is also used in this design..
There was a variant of the silencer for Mauser-98K, in which conical elements were inserted into the flat partitions between the chambers, forming vortex chambers, from which gases were poured out through a series of capillary holes.
The silencer for the Mauser-98K carbine also existed in a variant with a long case of small diameter, in which a tape rolled into a spiral was located along the entire length (can be made by turning). The flow of powder gases, spinning in a spiral, passed a path several times longer than the length of the muffler.
Design and device silencer shot sound for the submachine gun Ingram.
For the Ingram submachine gun, a variant of the silencer was also developed using spirals. The silencer contains two spirals in the opposite direction. The spirals are placed in a roll of mesh, performing the role of heat sink.
Part of the gas is twisted along the channel coming from the muzzle of the barrel, and part, passing through the grid, directly overtakes this stream and enters a spiral twisted in the opposite direction, moving along the channel in the opposite direction. As a result of the meeting of the two counterflows of the internal hull, the total gas outflow rate drops sharply, which is especially noticeable when firing in bursts.
Based on the book Devices for reducing the sound level of a shot for automatic weapons.
Konovalov N.A., Pilipenko O.V., Skorik A.D., Kvasha Yu.A., Kovalenko V.I..